ENCODE Video Sound Bites and B-Roll Footage

September 5, 2012
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Introduction

Below are links to video sound bites selected from interviews with members of the ENCODE Project. The National Human Genome Research Institute provides this footage to assist reporters and producers interested in covering this discovery and to help the public understand the work of the institute.

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Sound Bites

Ewan Birney, Ph.D.
EMBL-EBI (European Bioinformatics Institute)
Clip # Running Time Quotes (Text) Web Preview * For Broadcast **
1 18 seconds

I think the book analogy is a very good analogy...and the human genome when it was finished, were the letters, okay. What ENCODE is saying is, "Aha, I think this is a word, and this is a word, and this is a word and this is a word...and there's a lot of them.

Birney01.mp4
(4.52 MB)
Birney1.mp4
(21.9 MB)
2 22 seconds

We find that there's something like eight percent of the genome involved in very specific contacts between protein and DNA.  Now, that's a much, much bigger set than the set of protein coding axons -- it's about 1.5 percent of the genome.  And so just the fact that the genome is alive with lots of these different things is a really important statement to make.

Birney02.mp4
(5.51 MB)
Birney2.mp4
(26.7 MB)
3 27 seconds So we can take a disease like Crohn's disease, which is a pretty bad disease of the gut, and say to the people studying it, "Well, have you thought about this particular mechanism? Or this?" .... we do that comprehensively for hundreds of diseases compare alongside hundreds of different mechanisms, and that's been quite exciting. Birney03.mp4
(6.79 MB)
Birney3.mp4
(32.8 MB)
4 12 seconds The interesting thing about ENCODE is it's painted this whole genome, now, with a whole new set of colors. So this big gray patch of genome that nobody knew anything about suddenly gets alive, and lots and lots and lots of different colors. Birney04.mp4
(3.20 MB)
Birney4.mp4
(15.5 MB)
5 23 seconds This metaphor about junk DNA, it's become, I think, very entrenched. It's been entrenched publicly and entrenched scientifically. And ENCODE totally challenges that. It really says, not that all the DNA in the genome is useful, but we just don't have big, blank, boring bits of the genome. All the genome is alive at some level. Birney05.mp4
(5.74 MB)
Birney5.mp4
(28.0 MB)
6 17 seconds Well there's 2,000 binding proteins in the genome. We looked at about 100 of those, 116 of those. So there's a long way to go yet. So there's a lot more of these guys to study. Birney06.mp4
(4.37 MB)
Birney6.mp4
(21.3 MB)

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Elise Feingold, Ph.D.
National Human Genome Research Institute
Clip # Running Time Quotes (Text) Web Preview * For Broadcast **
1 8 seconds The fundamental question we're trying to answer is what does all the genome do? What are all the different functional elements? Feingold01.mp4
(2.16 MB)
Feingold1.mp4
(10.4 MB)
2 7 seconds I think, one of the biggest contributions I've made to the project is coming up with the name of ENCODE, for ENcyclopedia of DNA Elements. Feingold02.mp4
(1.94 MB)
Feingold2.mp4
(9.49 MB)
3 14 seconds I think that on a fundamental level, we've learned that so much of the genome is actually functional.  We've learned that a large fraction of the genome is actually transcribed and can be attributed to active characteristics. Feingold03.mp4
(3.57 MB)
Feingold3.mp4
(17.3 MB)
4 15 seconds And so while it can't tell you exactly which are the causative variants, it gives you clues as to where you might want to then take your next study. It may tell you to focus on this particular region and this particular cell type, look at these particular genes. So it really provides an entryway. Feingold04.mp4
(3.96 MB)
Feingold4.mp4
(19.2 MB)
5 20 seconds One of the things that are being discovered by researchers through ENCODE is to really look across the genome and identify - sort of paint the chromosome, genome, in different functional areas, and actually be able to use that to figure out which functional elements work with which genes. Feingold05.mp4
(5.13 MB)
Feingold5.mp4
(24.9 MB)
6 16 seconds So it really gets you just a blueprint, where are you landing and what genes are nearby. Where is this falling in a functional... into functional regions, what tissues might that be active in, so really it's a starting point. Feingold06.mp4
(4.05 MB)
Feingold6.mp4
(19.6 MB)

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Peter Good, Ph.D.
National Human Genome Research Institute
Clip # Running Time Quotes (Text) Web Preview * For Broadcast **
1 13 seconds So the Genome Project did a very good job of elucidating all the bases in the genome, all three billion of them. What ENCODE would like to know is what are the functions of every single base? Good01.mp4
(3.25 MB)
Good1.mp4
(15.8 MB)
2 27 seconds So we know that the genome is composed of a collection of parts, and so what works - what ENCODE you could call - is it's trying to determine the parts list. And it has protein-coding regions. It has things that drive RNA transcription promoters. It has things that can regulate promoters, called enhancers. And what we're trying to do is just trying to elucidate the parts of the genome. Good02.mp4
(6.76 MB)
Good2.mp4
(32.8 MB)
3 14 seconds With ENCODE, if we know where all these are, we're going to enable the researchers that are studying cancer, that are studying liver disease, that are studying any disease, the tools to be able to try to understand how these diseases arise. Good03.mp4
(3.57 MB)
Good3.mp4
(17.3 MB)
4 15 seconds What ENCODE does is it provides a general catalogue of how the genome functions, and so what they can do is, is they can take their disease tissue - in the case of a diabetes researcher, it would be a pancreas or a muscle cell in a diabetes patient - and they can ask what genes are expressed, and then they can start - look to see how genes are misregulated in these tissues, and then they can start back to our catalogue and say, okay, what are the elements, ENCODE elements, in front of these genes? Good04.mp4
(7.54 MB)
Good4.mp4
(36.7 MB)
5 20 seconds Just as the same way that the Genome Project was incredibly useful for people trying to find genes, I think ENCODE will take it that step further, will identify what are the functional elements in the genome, and it will enable biologists to say, "Okay, how can I design an experiment to test this hypothesis that I've generated." Good05.mp4
(5.16 MB)
Good5.mp4
(25.0 MB)

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Ross Hardison, Ph.D.
The Pennsylvania State University
Clip # Running Time Quotes (Text) Web Preview * For Broadcast **
1 28 seconds Our genome is very, very large, and some parts of it have an impact on us as human beings...and we're trying to figure out where those functional elements are, where the parts of it make a difference in our lives, in our susceptibility to disease, and maybe even impact our behaviors in some ways. Hardison01.mp4
(7.00 MB)
Hardison1.mp4
(34.2 MB)
2 12 seconds This very dynamic process we're starting to understand is integral to getting that information that's stored in the DNA read out and expressed to make protein products in our cells. Hardison02.mp4
(3.14 MB)
Hardison2.mp4
(15.2 MB)
3 22 seconds You can get antibodies against those proteins and we can purify out that subset of the genome that has a special property. We get those molecules, we put them into the sequencers... map them back to the genome and figure out where these particular chemical processes are happening. This is just amazing. Hardison03.mp4
(5.64 MB)
Hardison3.mp4
(27.6 MB)
4 21 seconds If we could understand that, then we could start to figure out who's really likely to come down with type 2 diabetes, who's likely to get lung cancer, who should be making changes in their lifestyles to try to prevent this, who's going to be most responsive to certain drugs... Hardison04.mp4
(5.43 MB)
Hardison4.mp4
(16.5 MB)

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Richard Myers, Ph.D.
HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology
Clip # Running Time Quotes (Text) Web Preview * For Broadcast **
1 13 seconds So the whole purpose of the ENCODE project is to try to figure out which base pairs in the human genome are important. And that's a big question because there are a lot of base pairs, and the important ones are not all in one little package, they are spread throughout. Myers01.mp4
(3.29 MB)
Myers1.mp4
(16.0 MB)
2 18 seconds A big part of the project is to try to figure out where all the proteins that interact with DNA... where they're bound in a particular cell at a particular time during a particular process. You basically freeze the proteins onto the place in the DNA in the nucleus while the cell's still alive and then analyze it afterwards. Myers02.mp4
(4.64 MB)
Myers2.mp4
(22.6 MB)
3 21 seconds The real contribution is that it's really making a dent in the question of where are the important elements in the human genome, and why do you want to know those? You want to understand human biology for disease, for basic biology, for all sorts of reasons. And it's just - it's - you know, it's part of what we need to do that understanding. Myers03.mp4
(5.41 MB)
Myers3.mp4
(26.4 MB)
4 13 seconds We do know a whole lot more than we knew even a couple or five years ago. And having ENCODE as a sort of a reference, I think it goes a long way towards, you know, understanding what's important in the human genome. Myers04.mp4
(3.43 MB)
Myers4.mp4
(16.7 MB)

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Mike Pazin, Ph.D.
National Human Genome Research Institute
Clip # Running Time Quotes (Text) Web Preview * For Broadcast **
1 7 seconds And one of the big mysteries that we're working at right now with the ENCODE project is how is that the genome actually works? Pazin01.mp4
(1.83 MB)
Pazin1.mp4
(8.98 MB)
2 12 seconds As difficult as it was to find all of the information of the genome, to sequence the genome, this next step of figuring out what all the information is in the genome is a much more complex problem. Pazin02.mp4
(3.16 MB)
Pazin2.mp4
(15.3 MB)
3 24 seconds Genes are turned on and off at appropriate times, and the genome contains an important bit of information on how that's done. We don't understand how that information is encoded in the genome. And the ENCODE project is trying to figure out where is that information in the genome and what's the code that's used to write that information into the genome? And then also what's the machinery that understands the code and uses it? Pazin03.mp4
(6.17 MB)
Pazin3.mp4
(29.9 MB)
4 33 seconds So I think that the biggest surprise that ENCODE has found there is by finding that it looks like very little of our genomes are junk... What ENCODE is able to do, because of the scale that these experiments have been done at, is to attribute function to a larger fraction of the genome than we were able to see before... So for a large fraction of the genome, not now 1.6 percent or 5 percent, but 80 percent of the genome, we can say that we know that it does something. Pazin04.mp4
(8.33 MB)
Pazin4.mp4
(40.4 MB)
5 17 seconds Absolutely it gives us the first step to figuring out how the genome works. And just like when I'm building with Legos with my kids, if I don't know what all the parts are that I need for a step, that step's going to be challenging. And I would say the same thing happens with looking at our genomes. Pazin05.mp4
(4.44 MB)
Pazin5.mp4
(21.6 MB)
6 15 seconds I think the biggest application that I see is informing disease research. It's also hugely useful for looking at basic biology. And let's face it, basic biology is the pump that primes our understanding of human disease. Pazin06.mp4
(3.76 MB)
Pazin6.mp4
(18.3 MB)

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These clips were developed for use by broadcast media to assist with the preparation of news stories. However, all government-produced video is in the public domain and copyright free. Anyone is freely able to use these clips. These clips were created by Genome Productions, a part of the Communications and Public Liaison Branch of the National Human Genome Research Institute. As a courtesy, it is requested that the an appropriate acknowledgement be given: "Courtesy: National Human Genome Research Institute."

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Last Updated: January 22, 2014