The Genomics Landscape
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- Georgetown U. School of Nursing: The Human Genomics Landscape: Bringing Genomic Medicine into Focus
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Laboratory-Developed Tests: Public Comments Sought
By Eric D. Green, M.D., Ph.D.
Director, National Human Genome Research Institute
October 7, 2014
Today marks the end of the first week of Fiscal Year 2015 for the U.S. government. I am pleased to send you this message since it means that the federal government is 'open for business' (unlike the circumstance that we were in one year ago!). We are currently operating under a Continuing Resolution that funds the government through December 11, 2014, at Fiscal Year 2014 levels.
In this month's The Genomics Landscape, I describe a recent release from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announcing the steps that they are taking to help ensure the reliability of certain diagnostic tests. See various details below, along with other information items that I hope will be of interest to you.
Specifically, October's The Genomics Landscape features stories about:
Lastly, look for NHGRI at the 2014 American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) Annual Meeting from October 18 - 22 in San Diego, California. As in previous years, there will be an NHGRI exhibit booth. Stop by to visit with NHGRI staff, including myself, to talk about the Institute and the exciting state of genomics research.
All the best,
Laboratory-Developed Tests: Public Comments Sought
The integration of genomics into medicine is not solely dependent upon research advances - it also depends upon the development and implementation of appropriate policies and laws. For instance, anti-discrimination and privacy laws are important to protect patients from potential harm. Coverage and reimbursement policies are vital to promote patient access to appropriate genomic technologies. Policies fostering the development of electronic health record systems able to capture genomic information are necessary to enable clinical decision support. And there should be appropriate oversight to ensure the accuracy, consistency, and reliability of genomic-based tests that are available to healthcare professionals for clinical care. Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued draft guidance on the regulation of laboratory-developed tests (LDTs) - tests designed, manufactured, and used within a single laboratory - to address this latter need. While the FDA has always had the authority to regulate such tests, historically, it has not done so. Rather, it has exercised what is called 'enforcement discretion.'
The FDA announcement comes at a critical transition for genomic medicine. Historically, most genetic/genomic LDTs have been used to identify rare disease-causing mutations, and the risk to a patient of an inaccurate or misinterpreted result was relatively low. Recent advances in technology have led to the use of more and more complex genomic tests for guiding clinical decisions, such as what drug to use to treat cancer. While we celebrate these clinical advances, it is important to ensure the quality and validity of the genomic tests for the sake of patient safety.
The idea of FDA regulation of LDTs is not new. In 2000 and in 2008, advisory committees to the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services recommended that FDA oversight should address all genetic/genomic laboratory tests. In 2010, the FDA announced that it was reviewing the issue and planned to regulate LDTs.
The goal of FDA's proposed oversight is to verify independently that LDTs being used clinically are safe and effective for patient care. Significantly, the draft guidance states that FDA intends to phase in LDT oversight over a number of years based on the risk associated with each test. Since the agency plans to prioritize their oversight, it will continue to practice 'enforcement discretion' for tests deemed to be lower risk, for seldom-performed tests for rare diseases, and for those fulfilling an unmet need.
The proposed guidance would bring oversight of LDTs into alignment with the oversight of those tests marketed and distributed as kits, which also follows a risk-based system. This would bring the same standard to both types of tests. This consistency in regulation is expected to benefit those wishing to commercialize a genetic/genomic test by removing the uncertainty in the current regulatory landscape. The FDA also expects that establishing strong and clear test standards will benefit patients by improving consistency and reliability in testing.
NHGRI supports the efforts of our sister agency to address this important issue for genomic medicine. Ultimately, the success of our collective efforts to improve health through genomics will be dependent upon finding the right balance in regulating genetic/genomic tests to ensure accuracy and clinical relevance while promoting innovation. I encourage you to review the draft guidance during the public comment period and to share your thoughts with the FDA on how it could be improved. For further details, visit genome.gov/10002335
The Genomics Landscape is a monthly email message that aims to disseminate information directly from the NHGRI Director to the broader genomics community and other interested recipients. Each month, Dr. Green will endeavor to highlight two to four topics, typically featuring one in greater detail. To receive The Genomics Landscape each month sign up via the following ListServ: The Genomics Landscape Listserv. To suggest topics for future messages, please send an e-mail to: NHGRILANDSCAPE@MAIL.NIH.GOV
More From the Genomics Landscape
- Small Business Grant Workshop at the 2014 ASHG Annual Meeting NHGRI will hold a workshop at this year's ASHG Annual Meeting entitled "Building your genomics business with SBIR/STTR support from NHGRI and NIH" to encourage participation in the Institute's small business grant programs. NHGRI dedicates about $12 million in small business grants each year, with particular interest in genomic analysis (from nucleic acids to cells), discovery and diagnostics 'omics' technologies, genomics-based algorithms (analysis and informatics), and general genome science. The amount of these funds will be increasing by a Congressionally mandated 0.12% of our total budget annually (or about $0.6 million per year) in Fiscal Years 2015-2017.
For more information and to register for the October 19 workshop, visit genome.gov/SBIR2014Workshop
- NIH Neuroscience Institute Director Retires
A great friend of NHGRI, Dr. Story Landis, retired last month as Director of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), a position she has held since 2003. Story came to NIH in 1995 to be the NINDS Scientific Director, and was promoted 8 years later to become the NINDS Director. Recently, she co-led NIH's role in the federal brain-mapping project known as the BRAIN Initiative. I have worked closely with Story for many years - first when we were both Scientific Directors and later when we were both Institute Directors. She has truly been a terrific scientific leader and a wonderful colleague and mentor. Dr. Walter Koroshetz will serve as Acting Director while a national search for Dr. Landis' replacement is conducted.
For more information, see ninds.nih.gov/about_ninds/message/message-dr-landis-retirement.htm
- NHGRI Intramural Faculty Recruitment
The NHGRI Intramural Research Program (IRP) recently launched a major recruitment to hire multiple investigators to pursue innovative, independent genomics and genetics research at the NIH. Multiple areas of genomics research are being targeted. Candidates must have a doctoral degree, as well as comprehensive, advanced training and a record of accomplishment. Interested applicants should visit http://www.genome.gov/27559175 for further details and application instructions.
For more information on the Institute's IRP, see genome.gov/DIR
NIH News of Interest
U.S. Science Suffering from Booms and Busts in Funding
NIH Awards Aim to Improve Understanding of Cell Pathways, Development of New Therapies
New Human Microbiome Project Marker Paper Highlights Studies on Pregnancy and Preterm Birth, IBD, and Diabetes
Request for Information (RFI): Consideration of Sex as a Biological Variable in Biomedical Research
White House Declares War on Drug-Resistant Superbugs
Statement on USG Policy for Institutional Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of Concern
Take a Look at the Science Research Supported by Federal Funders: Launch of RePORTER tool
Baylor College of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin to conduct DNA sequencing for Undiagnosed Diseases Network
NIH Awards Initial $46 Million for BRAIN Initiative Research
NIH Common Fund Announces 2014 High-Risk, High-Reward Research Awardees
Obama Honors Nation's Top Scientists
NIH Funding News
Building Your Genomics Business with SBIR/STTR Support from NHGRI and the NIH Workshop at ASHG
Nominations for the 2015 Lurie Prize in Biomedical Sciences
NIH Single Cell Analysis Challenge: Follow That Cell
Yet Another Genetic Reason to Protect Skin from Sun
DNA Ties Ashkenazi Jews to Group of Just 330 People from Middle Ages
Sequencing of Five African Fishes Reveals Diverse Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Evolution
Healthy Humans Make Nice Homes for Viruses
Sex in the Sink: Gene-Swapping Bacteria Are Making New Superbugs
Experts Provide Much-Needed Policy Analysis for Clinical Integration of Next Generation Sequencing
Cancer Genome Sequencing Will Mean More Targeted Therapies
Tall Tale: Scientists Unravel the Genetics of Human Height
Genome Advance of the Month
New Genomics Videos
Genetics of Complex Disease - Larry Brody
NHGRI Advisory Council Meeting, September 8, 2014
Genetic Counseling Training Program Alumni Research Symposium 2014
NIH Leadership on C-SPAN's Washington Journal
Past editions of The Genomics Landscape can be accessed at Director's Page Archive
Last Updated: October 7, 2014
Posted: August 4, 2008