Genome Statute and Legislation Database Search

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  • Topic: Privacy
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State Citation/Title Ascending Order
(link to state's page)
Topic(s) Summary
Alaska State Statute
opens new window Alaska: AS 18.13.010 et seq.
Privacy This statute provides protections for the privacy of DNA samples and the results of DNA analysis. DNA samples and the results of DNA analysis are the exclusive property of the person sampled or analyzed. Samples collected and analyses conducted for the DNA registry, law enforcement purposes, paternity testing, newborn screening, and emergency medical treatment are exempt. The statute sets forth civi and criminal penalties for violations of the law.
Arizona State Statute
opens new window Arizona: ARS 12-2801 et seq.
Privacy,
Research
Information derived from genetic testing my only be released to the person tested or others with written authorization from the person tested with some exceptions, including but not limited to (1) a researcher for medical research and public health purposes, only if the research is conducted pursuant to applicable federal or state laws and regulations, (2) if the identity of the individual providing the sample is not disclosed to the person collecting and conducting research; or (3) a third person if approved by a human subjects review committee or human ethics committee, with respect to persons who are subject to a state cancer registry. The law also places restrictions on disclosure or compelling disclosure, requires consent from a parent or legal guardian of a minor to conduct genetic testing other than newborn screening, and requires written informed consent for genetic testing by health care providers with some exceptions.
Arizona State Statute
opens new window Arizona: ARS 20-448.02
Privacy A person may not require or perform a genetic test without written informed consent. Genetic test results may not be disclosed without the consent of the subject.
Arkansas State Statute
opens new window Arkansas: Ark. Code 20-35-101 et seq.
Privacy,
Research
No individual records of subjects in genetic research studies approved by an institutional review board or conducted subject to the requirements of the federal common rule may be subpoenaed or subject to discovery in civil suits except in cases where the information in the records is the basis of the suit. These records may not be disclosed to an insurer or employer without the informed written consent of the subject. Stored tissues, including blood, that arise from surgery or other diagnostic and therapeutic steps may be disclosed for genetic or other research studies if the patients name or social security number is not attached to or included with the specimen. Identifying information may be disclosed with the informed written consent of the individual. Published results may not identify a subject unless the individual has provided specific informed consent.
California State Statute
opens new window California: Cal. Civil Code 56.17
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy
A person who negligently or willfully discloses genetic test results in an individuals medical records who is applying for or enrolled in a health care service plan, except with written authorization in the format specified, is subject to fines as set forth in the statutes.
Colorado State Statute
opens new window Colorado: CRS 10-3-1104.6
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy,
Research
Genetic information the property of the individual, and written consent is required for its disclosure other than for diagnosis, treatment or therapy. Health care entities may not retain or use genetic information for non-therapeutic purposes or request or require a genetic test; however, test results may be used on a limited basis to make payment decisions. Exceptions under the law include the use of genetic information for scientific research if the identity of the individual to whom the genetic information pertains is not disclosed to a third party other than the individuals physician with written consent. The law provides remedies for individuals whose rights are violated.
Colorado State Statute
opens new window Colorado: CRS 10-3-1104.7
Other Lines of Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy,
Research
Genetic information is the property of the individual to whom it pertains. Release of genetic information that identifies the person tested for purposes other than diagnosis, treatment and therapy requires specific written consent. Exemptions under the law include some uses by research facilities. Researchers may use genetic testing information for scientific research as long as the identity of any individual to whom the information pertains is not disclosed to any third party except that the individuals identity may be disclosed to the individuals physician with written consent. Group disability or long-term care insurers that receive genetic information may not seek, use or keep the information for any non-therapeutic or underwriting purpose. Life insurers and individual disability insurers may not perform a genetic test without informed consent. Penalties are set forth for unfair trade practices with respect to group disability and long-term care insurance.
Connecticut State Statute
opens new window Connecticut: GSC 38a 999
Privacy An insurance institution, agent or insurance support organization that collects, uses or discloses medical record information must have written policies, standards and procedures for the management, transfer and security of medical record information, including additional protection against unauthorized disclosure of sensitive health information such as information regarding genetic testing and the fact that an individual has undergone a genetic test.
Delaware State Statute
opens new window Delaware: Del. Code 16 1201 et seq.
Privacy,
Research
Informed consent is required to obtain or retain genetic information about an individual. Exemptions include anonymous research where the identity of the subject will not be released. A sample from which genetic information has been obtained must be promptly destroyed with certain exceptions, including retention for anonymous research. An individual may inspect, request correction of and obtain genetic information from the records of that individual. The law sets forth civil penalties for violations.
Florida State Statute
opens new window Florida: FS 760.40
Privacy Informed consent is required to perform DNA analysis. The results of DNA analysis, whether held by a public or private entity, are the exclusive property of the person tested, are confidential, and may not be disclosed without the consent of the person tested with some exceptions such as criminal investigations. A person who performs DNA analysis or receives records, results, or findings of DNA analysis must provide the person tested with notice that the analysis was performed or that the information was received.
Georgia State Statute
opens new window Georgia: OCGA 33-54-1 et seq.
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy,
Research
Genetic information is the property of the individual tested. Prior written authorization is required for genetic testing and release of results to anyone other than the person tested. A fraternal benefit society, a nonprofit medical service corporation, a health care corporation, a health maintenance corporation, or a self-insured health plan not subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of ERISA may not seek information derived from genetic testing, and if it is received, the information may not be used for any nontherapeutic purpose or be released without explicit written consent. Exceptions include scientific research facilities, which may conduct genetic testing and use information derived from testing for scientific research if the identity of any individual tested is not disclosed to any third party, except to an individual's physician with consent.
Hawaii State Statute
opens new window Hawaii: HRS 431:10A-118
431:10A-404.5
432:1-607
432:2-404.5
and 432D-26
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy
No insurer providing accident and health or sickness insurance coverage or extended health insurance coverage, mutual benefit society, fraternal benefit society, or health maintenance organization may use an individual's or a family member's genetic information or a request for genetic services to (1) deny or limit any coverage or (2) establish eligibility, continuation, enrollment, or premium payment. These entities may not request or require collection or disclosure of genetic information of an individual or family member or disclose genetic information without written consent.
Idaho State Statute
opens new window Idaho: IC 39-8301 et seq.
Employment Nondiscrimination,
Privacy
An employer may not (1) access or otherwise take into account private genetic information, (2) request or require consent to a release of private genetic information, (3) request or require a genetic test, or (4) inquire about taking or refusal to take a genetic test in connection with a hiring, promotion, retention or other related decision. An exception is made under certain circumstances for an order compelling disclosure of private genetic information.
Illinois State Statute
opens new window Illinois: 410 ILCS 513/1 et seq.
Employment Nondiscrimination,
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy
Genetic information may only be released to the individual tested and to other authorized persons with a few exceptions. An insurer may not seek information derived from genetic testing for use in connection with a policy of accident and health insurance, and an insurer that receives this information may not use it for non-therapeutic purposes unless the favorable results of a genetic test are voluntarily submitted. An employer, employment agency, labor organization, and licensing agency must treat genetic testing and genetic information in a manner that is consistent with federal law, including but not limited to the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008. Prohibited actions by employers, employment agencies and labor organizations are specified. No person may disclose the identity of any person upon whom a genetic test is performed or the results of a genetic test in a manner that permits identification of the subject of the test with some exceptions.
Iowa State Statute
opens new window Iowa: IC 507B.4
513B.9A and 513B.10
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy,
Research
Health insurers may not discriminate based on genetic information or tests. Authorization is required to obtain genetic information or samples. Consent requirements are established to collect, retain, transmit or use genetic information. Exceptions under consent requirements include medical or scientific research and eduction and for use in medical repositories and registries if it does not contain personally identifiable information. Health insurers may not release genetic information without prior written authorization. Exceptions for release requirements include (1) if an individual is participating in research settings, including those governed by the federal policy for the protection of human subjects, and (2) tests conducted purely for research. A carrier or organized delivery system offering group health insurance coverage may not establish rules for eligibility or continued eligibility based on a health status-related factors, including genetic information, or impose a pre-existing condition exclusion based on genetic information in the absence of a diagnosis.
Kansas State Statute
opens new window Kansas: KSA 72-6214
Privacy Prohibits school districts from collecting biometric data from a student, including a DNA sequence, unless the student, if an adult, or the parent or legal guardian of the student, if a minor, consents in writing.
Kentucky State Statute
opens new window Kentucky: KRS Chapter 61
Privacy Public agencies and nonaffiliated third parties must implement, maintain, and update security procedures and practices to safeguard personal information, including a biometric or genetic print.
Kentucky State Statute
opens new window Kentucky: KRS 304.12-085
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Other Lines of Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy
Individual or group health benefit plan or insurers may not (1) deny, cancel, or refuse to renew the benefits or coverage, or vary the premiums, terms, or conditions for the benefits or coverage, for any participant or beneficiary based on a genetic test for which symptoms have not manifested or a request or receipt of genetic services or (2) disclose any genetic test without prior authorization for each disclosure. A group or individual health benefit plan or insurer or a disability income insurer may not request or require the disclosure of any genetic test about a participant or beneficiary without prior written authorization for each disclosure.
Louisiana State Statute
opens new window Louisiana: LRS 22:1023
40:2210
and 22: 1097
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy,
Research
The statutes prohibit discrimination based on genetic information of an individual or family member or the request or receipt of genetic services by a hospital, health, or medical expense insurance policy, hospital or medical service contract, employee welfare benefit plan, health and accident insurance policy, preferred provide organization or any other insurance contract of this type. Other restrictions also are placed on these entities with respect to genetic information and testing. An insurer offering individual or group health insurance coverage may request a genetic test if the request is made in compliance with the Common Rule and other specified criteria are met. Exceptions under the law include anonymous research where the identity of the subjects will not be released. An insured or enrollees genetic information is the property of the individual to whom it pertains and may not be retained without authorization with some exceptions. Civil penalties for violations are set forth.
Maine State Statute
opens new window Maine: MRS 22 1711C
Privacy,
Research
An individual's health care information, including information about individual cells or their components or genetic information, is confidential. Authorization is required to disclose this information other than to the individual by the health care practitioner or facility with some exceptions. The definition of health care information excludes information that protects the anonymity of the individual by means of encryption or encoding of individual identifiers or information pertaining to or derived from federally sponsored, authorized or regulated research governed by 21 Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 50 and 56 and 45 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 46, to the extent that such information is used in a manner that protects the identification of individuals.
Maine State Statute
opens new window Maine: MRS 24A 2204
Privacy The Insurance Information and Privacy Protection Act defines health care information to include information about individual cells or their components or genetic information.
Maryland State Statute
opens new window Maryland: Md. Commercial Code 14-3501 et seq.
Privacy The law sets forth requirements for governmental units, including an executive, legislative or judicial agency, a department, a board, a commission, an authority, a public institution of higher education, or a unit or instrument of the state that collects or discloses personal information. Personal information is defined to include an individual's genetic print.
Maryland State Statute
opens new window Maryland: Md. Insurance Code 27-909
and Md. Health-General Code 19-706
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy,
Research
An insurer, nonprofit health service plan, or health maintenance organization, which does not include life insurance policies, annuity contracts, long-term care insurance policies, or disability insurance policies, may not (1) use a genetic test, the results of a genetic test, genetic information, or a request for genetic services to affect a health insurance policy or contract, (2) request or require a genetic test, the results of a genetic test, or genetic information for certain purposes, or (3) release identifiable genetic information or the results of a genetic test except for internal business and to a participating health care provider without prior written authorization. Disclosure of identifiable genetic information to an employee or authorized health care provider may only be for the purpose of providing medical care to patients or conducting research approved by an institutional review board established in accordance with federal law. The insurance commissioner has the authority to issue orders where a violation is found.
Maryland State Statute
opens new window Maryland: Md. State Government Code 20-601 et seq.
Employment Nondiscrimination,
Privacy
An employer may not (1) discriminate against any individual because of genetic information or because of an individuals refusal to submit to a genetic test or provide the results of a genetic test, (2) limit, segregate, or classify its employees or applicants because of genetic information or the individual's refusal to submit to a genetic test or provide the results of a genetic test, or (3) request or require a genetic test as a condition of hiring or determining benefits.
Massachusetts State Statute
opens new window Massachusetts: MGL Public Health 111 70G
Other Lines of Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy,
Research
Genetic information contained in reports or records held by hospitals, laboratories, physicians, insurance institutions and others named in the statute may not be divulged without informed written consent with some exceptions, which include in connection with life, disability, and long term care insurance, as allowable, or as confidential research information for use in epidemiological or clinical research conducted for the purpose of generating scientific knowledge about genes or learning about the genetic basis of disease or for developing pharmaceutical and other treatments of disease. Additional provisions concerning the performance of genetic tests apply to laboratories and other facilities. Organizations conducting pharmoco-economic studies in systematic research to determine the cost benefits of specific treatment for genetic based disease are exempt from the need to re-obtain informed consent. A person whose rights have been violated may bring a civil action.
Michigan State Statute
opens new window Michigan: MCL 500.2212c
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy
The law requires a workgroup to develop a standard prior written authorization methodology for prescribers. If the workgroup develops a paper form, it must allow an insurer to request and require additional information beyond the form. Additional information may include patient clinical information regarding genetic tests.
Michigan State Statute
opens new window Michigan: MCL 500.3829a
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy
Insurers that provide Medicare supplement policies or certificates only may not deny or condition the issuance or effectiveness of insurance, including pre-existing condition exclusions, on the basis of genetic information. Insurers of these policies or certificates may not (1) discriminate with respect to pricing on the basis of genetic information, (2) request or require an individual or family member to undergo a genetic test (with an exception regarding requesting a test), or (3) use the manifestation of disease in an individual as genetic information about another group members and to further increase premiums for the group. Insurers may request a genetic test from an individual or family member only if the request is pursuant to research that applies to the Common Rule and other criteria are met.
Michigan State Statute
opens new window Michigan: MCL 333.16221
333.17020
and 333.17520
Privacy A physician or individual to whom a physician has delegated authority must obtain informed written consent to order a pre-symptomatic or predictive genetic test. Required contents of the informed consent form are specified, and the department of community health with others must develop a model consent form, which, if used, bars the test subject from bringing any civil action for damages based on failure to obtain consent. The public health department may investigate activities thought to be in violation of the law and report its findings by to the appropriate disciplinary subcommittee.
Minnesota State Statute
opens new window Minnesota: MS 13.386
Use of Residual Newborn Screening Specimens,
Privacy
Genetic information may be collected by a government entity or any other person only with written informed consent, used only for the purposes stated in the consent, be stored only for the duration consented, and disseminated only with an individuals consent. Consent to allow dissemination is only valid for one year or a lesser period if specified in the consent. Newborn screening activities are covered under the law.
Minnesota State Statute
opens new window Minnesota: MS 13.7191 (Section 8 Subd. 6)
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy
The law requires the Minnesota Insurance Marketplace to provide any data subject asked to supply private data with a notice of rights related to the handling of genetic information. The Minnesota Insurance Marketplace is a state health benefit exchange as described in section 1311 of the federal Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Public Law 111-148), and further defined through amendments to the act and regulations issued under the act.
Minnesota State Statute
opens new window Minnesota: MS 176.138
Privacy,
Other
Medical data collected, stored, used, or disseminated by or filed with the commissioner in connection with a claim for workers' compensation benefits does not constitute genetic information for the purposes of 13.386 of the statutes pertaining to genetic privacy.
Missouri State Statute
opens new window Missouri: MRS 375.1300 and 375.1309
Privacy,
Research
This section of the law is applicable to all insurance companies. A person who creates, stores, receives or furnishes genetic information must hold such information as confidential medical records and must obtain written authorization to disclose genetic information. Exceptions include statistical data compiled without reference to the identity of an individual, health research conducted in accordance with the provisions of the federal Common Rule, and health research using medical archives or databases in which the identity of individuals is protected from disclosure by coding or encryption, or by removing all identities. The director of insurance has the authority to enforce these provisions.
Nebraska State Statute
opens new window Nebraska: NRS 71-551
Privacy A physician or an individual to whom the physician has delegated authority to perform a selected act, task, or function may not order a predictive genetic test without prior written informed consent and in the manner specified with some exceptions such as newborn screening. The health department must develop a model informed consent form that, if used, bars the person tested from bringing any civil action on the basis that consent was not obtained.
Nevada State Statute
opens new window Nevada: NRS 629.101 et seq.
Privacy,
Research
It is unlawful to obtain any genetic information of a person without informed consent with some exceptions, including for use in a study where the identities of the persons from whom the genetic information is obtained are not disclosed to the person conducting the study. It is unlawful to retain genetic information that identifies a person without first obtaining the informed consent with some exceptions. Except as otherwise provided, a person who obtains the genetic information for use in a study must destroy that information upon completion of the study or withdrawal of the person from the study. Criminal penalties and a right to civil action are established for violations.
New Hampshire State Statute
opens new window New Hampshire: NHS 141-H:1
141-H:2
and 141:H-6
Privacy No individual or his/her family member may be required to undergo genetic testing as a condition of doing business with another person. Genetic testing may not be performed on any individual or anywhere on any resident of the state based on bodily materials obtained within the state without prior written and informed consent with some exceptions. Additional provisions address disclosure of results. The statutes establish a right to civil action by aggrieved individuals.
New Hampshire State Statute
opens new window New Hampshire: NHS 63:1
Privacy No whole-genome DNA sequencing may be performed for the purpose of newborn screening unless the general court authorizes such sequencing by statute.
New Jersey State Statute
opens new window New Jersey: NJS 10:5-43 et seq.
Privacy,
Research
A person may not (1) obtain genetic information from an individual or from an individual's DNA sample or (2) retain an individuals genetic information without prior informed consent with some exceptions, including for anonymous research where the identity of the subject will not be released. A DNA sample from an individual who is the subject of a research project must be destroyed promptly upon completion of the project or withdrawal of the individual from the project unless consent to retain the sample is provided. Additional provisions address retention and disclosure. The statutes set forth civil and criminal penalties for violations.
New Mexico State Statute
opens new window New Mexico: NMSA 24-21-1 et seq.
Employment Nondiscrimination,
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Other Lines of Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy,
Research
The statutes contain provisions on the acquisition, collection, retention, transmission or use of genetic information. Consent requirements provide an exemption (1) if DNA, genetic information or results of genetic analysis are not identified with the person or person's family members or (2) for the purpose of medical or scientific research and education (including retention of gene products, genetic information or genetic analysis if the identity of the person or person's family members is not disclosed.) Discrimination by an insurer against a person or his/her family member based on genetic analysis, genetic information or genetic propensity is prohibited. Life, disability income or long-term care insurance are exempt if use is based on sound actuarial principles or related to actual or reasonably anticipated experience. Upon request a persons genetic information or samples must be promptly destroyed with some exceptions, including if retention is authorized under a research protocol approved by an institution review board pursuant to federal law. It is unlawful for a person to use genetic information in employment or recruiting. A person whose rights under the provisions of the Genetic Information Privacy Act have been violated may bring a civil action for damages or other relief.
New York State Statute
opens new window New York: NYCL (CVR) 79-l
Privacy,
Research
Prior informed consent is required to perform a genetic test. Further disclosures require additional consent. For medical research purposes and with approval from an institutional review board and consent, a biological sample may be retained for longer than 60 days and be used for scientific research. Samples may be used for research conducted in accordance with applicable law and regulation and pursuant to a research protocol approved by an institutional review board, if individuals who provided the samples have given prior informed consent for the use of the sample for general research purposes without restrictions, and the samples have been permanently stripped of identifying information or coded to protect the individuals identity. Upon request samples that have not already been used for research must be destroyed. Family members of a research participant may not be contacted without the consent of the individual. Additional provisions address confidentiality, the incorporation of information into medical records, disclosure and penalties for violations.
Oklahoma State Statute
opens new window Oklahoma: OS 25-2001
Use of Residual Newborn Screening Specimens,
Privacy
Creates the Parents' Bill of Rights, including the right to consent in writing before any record of a minor childs blood or DNA is created, stored or shared, except as required by Sections 1-516 (pertaining to syphilis) and 1-524.1 (pertaining to testing arrested persons for sexually transmitted infections and HIV) of Title 63 of the Oklahoma Statutes, or unless authorized pursuant to a court order.
Oklahoma State Statute
opens new window Oklahoma: OS 36-3614.3
Privacy A person who maintains genetic information may not be compelled to disclose the information except under specified circumstances.
Oregon State Statute
opens new window Oregon: ORS 192.531 et seq.
Privacy,
Research
The genetic privacy statutes define the rights of individuals whose genetic information is collected, retained or disclosed and the rights of the individuals blood relatives; define the circumstances under which an individual may be subjected to genetic testing; define the circumstances under which an individuals genetic information may be collected, retained or disclosed; protect against discrimination by an insurer or employer based upon an individuals genetic characteristics; and define the circumstances under which a DNA sample or genetic information may be used for research.
Rhode Island State Statute
opens new window Rhode Island: RIGL 27-18-52
27-18-52.1
27-19-44
27-19-44.1
27-20-39
27-20-39.1
27-41-53
and 27-41-53.1
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy,
Research
Insurance administrators, health plans and providers of accident and sickness insurance, nonprofit hospital corporations, nonprofit medical service corporations, and HMOs are prohibited from releasing genetic information without prior written authorization. Individuals participating in research settings governed by the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Research Subjects are exempt. Tests conducted purely for research are excluded from the requirements set forth, as are tests for somatic (as opposed to heritable) mutations, and testing for forensic purposes. An individual or group health insurance contract, plan or policy (excluding disability income, long term care and insurance supplemental policies) may not use a genetic test or genetic information or request for genetic tests or genetic information or the results of a genetic test for specified purposes, including for underwriting. Provisions pertaining to the release the results of a genetic test or genetic information do not apply to releases in a format whereby individual identifiers are removed, encrypted, or encoded so that the identity of the individual is not disclosed. Authorization is required for each re-disclosure except for participating in research settings governed by the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Research Subjects.
South Carolina State Statute
opens new window South Carolina: SCCL 38-93 et seq.
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy
Health insurers offering individual health plans may not cancel, deny, adjust premiums or rates or impose pre-existing conditions exclusions based on the genetic information of an individual or family member or based on a request for genetic services. Health insurers offering group health plans may not adjust premiums or contributions based on genetic information. Health insurers may not request or require genetic information or require an individual to undergo a genetic test. The law also prohibits disclosure of genetic information without informed written consent, with some exceptions such as for law enforcement purposes or as allowable under state and federal statutes. It is required to obtain informed consent prior to performing a genetic test, with some exceptions such as for diagnosis or treatment of an individual if performed by a clinical laboratory that has received a specimen referral from the individual's treating physician or another clinical laboratory. Penalties for violations of the law are established and are intended to be in addition to those set forth under the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008, Public Law 110-233.
South Carolina State Statute
opens new window South Carolina: SCCL 38-93-10 et seq.
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy
An accident and health insurer providing hospital, medical and surgical, or major medical coverage on an expense incurred basis, providing a corporate health services plan, or providing a health care plan for health care services by a health maintenance organization may not (1) terminate, restrict, limit, or otherwise apply conditions to coverage or restrict the sale to an individual, (2) cancel or refuse to renew the coverage of an individual, (3) exclude an individual from coverage, (4) impose a waiting period, (5) impose a pre-existing condition exclusion; (6) require inclusion of a rider that excludes coverage for certain benefits and services, or (7) adjust premium contribution amounts or establish differential in premium rates for coverage based on genetic information or a request for genetic services. Additional provisions address consent to disclose genetic information and consent to perform genetic testing. An aggrieved individual may bring civil action. he penalties and enforcement provisions of subsections (A) and (B) are in addition to penalties and enforcement provisions of federal law, including those set forth in the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008.
South Dakota State Statute
opens new window South Dakota: SDCL 34-14-21 et seq.
Privacy Informed written consent consisting of the information specified in the statute is required prior to ordering a predictive genetic test. The person to be tested must receive a signed copy of the form, which also must be placed in the medical record. Tests performed per a court order or for a criminal investigation are exempt.
Texas State Statute
opens new window Texas: TS (Insurance) Code 546.001 et seq.
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy,
Research
Individual and group health benefit plans that request an applicant for coverage to submit to a genetic test for a permissible purpose must notify the applicant that the test is required, disclose to the applicant the proposed use of the results, and obtain prior written informed consent. A health benefit plan issuer may not use genetic information or the refusal of an applicant to submit to a genetic test to reject, deny, limit, cancel, refuse to renew, increase the premiums for, or otherwise adversely affect eligibility for or coverage under the plan. Genetic material obtained from an individual for a genetic test must be destroyed promptly after the purpose for which it was obtained with some exceptions, including (1) authorized retention of the sample for medical treatment or scientific research or (2) if the sample was obtained for research that is cleared by an institutional review board, and retention of the sample is under a requirement the institutional review board imposes on a specific research project or authorized by the research participant with institutional review board approval under federal law. A health benefit plan issuer may redisclose genetic information without authorization for actuarial or research studies if the tested individual could not be identified in any actuarial or research report and any materials that identify a tested individual are returned or destroyed as soon as reasonably practicable.
Texas State Statute
opens new window Texas: TS (Occupations) Code 58.001 et seq.
Employment Nondiscrimination,
Privacy,
Research
The statutes restrict the use and disclosure of genetic tests and the use of family history by a licensing authority. A sample obtained from an individual for a genetic test must be destroyed promptly after the purpose for which the sample was obtained with some exceptions, including (1) authorized retention of the sample for medical treatment or scientific research or (2) if the sample was obtained for research that is cleared by an institutional review board, and retention of the sample is under a requirement the institutional review board imposes on a specific research project or authorized by the research participant with institutional review board approval under federal law. Genetic information may not be disclosed without written authorization with some exceptions, including (1) if the disclosure is for information from a research study in which the procedure for obtaining informed written consent and the use of the information is governed by national standards for protecting participants involved in research projects, including guidelines issued under 21 C.F.R. Part 50 and 45 C.F.R. Part 46 and (2) the information does not identify a specific individual.
Utah State Statute
opens new window Utah: UC 26-45-101 et seq.
Employment Nondiscrimination,
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy
An employer may not in connection with a hiring, promotion, retention, or other related decision access or (1) take into account genetic information, (2) request or require an individual to consent to release genetic information, (3) submit to a genetic test, or (4) inquire or take into account that an individual or blood relative of that person has taken a genetic test. An employer may compel disclosure of genetic information for specified reasons. A health care insurer may not in connection with the offer or renewal of an insurance product or in the determination of any underwriting decision access or otherwise (1) take into consideration private genetic information about an asymptomatic individual, (2) request or require an asymptomatic individual to consent to a release for the purpose of accessing private genetic information, (3) request or require an asymptomatic individual or his blood relative to submit to a genetic test, or (4) inquire into or otherwise take into consideration the fact that an asymptomatic individual or his blood relative has taken or refused to take a genetic test. An individual whose rights have been violated bring civil action.
Vermont State Statute
opens new window Vermont: VSA 18 9331 et seq.
Privacy,
Research
A person may not be required to undergo genetic testing with some exceptions. Genetic testing may not be performed on any individual or any bodily materials be released for purposes of genetic testing without prior written authorization and informed consent except for (1) medical research where the identity of the subject is unknown, (2) if the research is conducted with anonymized medical information, where individual identifiers are encrypted or encoded, and the identity of the individual is not disclosed, or (3) if the identity of the individual is known, where standards of protection are equal to those contained in regulations promulgated by the federal Office for Protection from Research Risk (OPRR).
Virginia State Statute
opens new window Virginia: Code of Va. 38.2-508.4 and 38.2-613
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy
A person proposing to issue, re-issue, or renew accident and sickness insurance, excluding disability income insurance, issued by any insurer providing hospital, medical and surgical or major medical coverage on an expense incurred basis, a corporation providing a health services plan, or an HMO providing a health care plan may not on the basis of any genetic information or a request for genetic services (1) terminate, restrict, limit, or otherwise apply conditions to coverage of an individual or restrict the sale to an individual, (2) cancel or refuse to renew the coverage of an individual, (3) exclude an individual from coverage, (4) impose a waiting period, (5) require inclusion of a rider that excludes coverage for certain benefits and services, (6) establish differentials in premium rates for coverage, or (7) disclose any genetic information about an individual or his/her family member collected or received in connection with any insurance transaction unless the disclosure is made with the written authorization of the individual.
Washington State Statute
opens new window Washington: RCW 70.02.010 et seq.
Privacy,
Research
A health care provider, an individual who assists a health care provider in the delivery of health care, or an agent and employee of a health care provider may not disclose health care information, including a patient's deoxyribonucleic acid and identified sequence of chemical base pairs, about a patient to any other person without the patient's written authorization. A health care provider may disclose health care information to researchers if the health care provider or health care facility obtains the informed consent for the use of the patient's health care information for research purposes.

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Last Reviewed: June 10, 2014