Box 2 Technology Development

National Human Genome Research Institute

National Institutes of Health
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services


Box 2 Technology Development

The Human Genome Project was aided by several 'breakthrough' technological developments, including Sanger DNA sequencing and its automation, DNA-based genetic markers, large-insert cloning systems and the polymerase chain reaction. During the project, these methods were scaled up and made more efficient by 'evolutionary' advances, such as automation and miniaturization. New technologies, including capillary-based sequencing and methods for genotyping single-nucleotide polymorphisms, have recently been introduced, leading to further improvements in capacity for genomic analyses. Even newer approaches, such as nanotechnology and microfluidics, are being developed, and hold great promise, but further advances are still needed. Some examples are:


Last Reviewed: May 21, 2012