In 1990, researchers began to study how to efficiently produce stable carriers of large DNA inserts in bacteria, so-called BACs.
A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a piece of human DNA fitted into a bacterial "vector", a carrier of DNA. The human DNA insert in BACs - typically 100,000 to 300,000 base pairs long - is more stably inherited than in YACs. Many copies of the human insert are made when the bacteria multiply. They can be used as the pieces of the puzzle when making a physical map of the genome and can be chopped up further for sequencing.
Shizuya, H., Birren B., Kim, U.J., Mancino, V., Slepak, T., Tachiiri, Y., Simon, M. Cloning and stable maintenance of 300-kilobase-pair fragments of human DNA in Escherichia coli using an F-factor-based vector. Proc Natl Acad Sci, 89:8794-7. 1992. [PubMed]
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