NHGRI FY 2014 Congressional Justification

National Human Genome Research Institute

National Institutes of Health
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services


NHGRI FY 2014 Justification of Estimates for Congressional Appropriations Committee

 

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Organization Chart

NHGRI Organizational Structure Chart.  The chart shows 6 boxes, the Office of the Director box at the top with 7 boxes underneath - one for the Division of Management (DM), one for the Division of Policy, Communications, and Education (DPCE), one for the Division of Intramural Research (DIR), and one for the Division of Genome Sciences (DGS), one for the Division of Genomic Medicine (DGM), one for the Division of Genomics and Society (DGSO) and one for the Division of Extramural Operations (DEO).  The Director is Eric D. Green, M.D., Ph.D.  Deputy Director is Mark S. Guyer, Ph.D.  The Director's 7 reports are: M. Janis Mullaney, Director of DM; Laura Lyman Rodriguez, Ph.D., Director of DPCE; Daniel Kastner, M.D., Ph.D., Director for DIR; Jeffery A. Schloss, Ph.D., Director of DGS, Teri A. Manolio, M.D., Ph.D., Director of DGM; Mark S. Guyer, Acting Director of DGSO; and Bettie Graham, Ph.D., Director of DEO; .
View enlarged organizational chart

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Appropriation Language

For carrying out section 301 and title IV of the PHS Act with respect to human genome research, $517,319,000.

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Amounts Available for Obligation 1/
(Dollars in Thousands)

Source of Funding FY 2012 Actual FY 2013 CR FY 2014 PB
Appropriation
513,844
516,012
513,319
Type 1 Diabetes
0
0
0
Rescission
(971)
0
0
Subtotal, adjusted appropriation
512,873
516,012
517,319
Secretary's Transfer for Alzheimer Disease (AD)
0
0
0
Real Secretary's Transfer under Secretary's Transfer Authority (146) 0 0
Secretary's Transfer for AIDS authorized by PL 112-74, Section 206 0 0 0
Comparative transfer to NLM for NCBI and Public Access (469) (606) 0
Subtotal, adjusted budget authority
512,258
515,406
517,319
Unobligated balance, start of year
0
0
0
Unobligated balance, end of year
0
0
0
Subtotal, adjusted budget authority
512,258
515,406
517,319
Unobligated balance lapsing
(27)
0
0
Total obligations
512,231
515,406
517,319

1/ Excludes the following amounts for reimbursable activities carried out by this account:
FY 2012 - $23,062    FY 2013 - $35,062    FY 2014 - $35,062
Excludes $122 in FY 2012; $116 in FY 2013; and $218 in FY 2014 for royalties.

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Budget Mechanism Table - Total 1
(Dollars in Thousands)

MECHANISM
FY 2012
Actual
FY 2013
Enacted
FY 2014
PB
Change vs. FY 2012
  No. Amount No. Amount No. Amount No. Amount
Research Grants:
               
Research Projects:
               
Noncompeting 151 $79,050 159 $89,104 185 $103,666 34 $24,616
Administrative supplements (42) 12,846 (18) 5,641 (18) 23,001 -(24) -6,967
Competing:                
Renewal 8 6,561 12 6,358 7 5,858 -1 -703
New 82 39,859 77 39,658 80 38,592 -2 -1,267
Supplements 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Subtotal, Competing 90 $46,420 89 $46,016 87 $44,450 -3 -$1,970
Subtotal, RPGs 241 $138,316 248 $140,761 272 $153,995 31 $15,679
SBIR/STTR 26 11,315 26 11,838 25 12,415 -1 1,100
Research Project Grants 267 $149,631 274 $152,599 297 $166,410 30 $16,779
Research Centers:                
Specialized/comprehensive 32 155,667 32 129,613 24 141,941 -8 -13,726
Clinical research 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Biotechnology 19 47,778 19 45,618 17 42,276 -2 -5,502
Comparative medicine 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Research Centers in Minority Institutions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Subtotal, Centers 51 $203,445 51 $175,231 41 $184,217 -10 -$19,228
Other Research:                
Research careers 9 1,017 8 908 3 909 -6 -108
Cancer education 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cooperative clinical research 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Biomedical research support 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Minority biomedical research support 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other 20 2,312 47 30,178 29 5,828 9 3,516
Subtotal, Other Research 29 $3,329 55 $31,086 32 $6,737 3 $3,408
Total Research Grants 347 $356,405 380 $358,916 370 $357,364 23 $959
Ruth L, Kirschtein Training Awards: FTTPs Amount FTTPs Amount FTTPs Amount FTTPs Amount
Individual awards 13 572 14 601 14 613 1 41
Institutional awards 166 7,833 94 9,149 196 9,230 30 1,397
Total, Research Training 179 $8,405 208 $9,750 210 $9,843 31 $1,438
Research & development contracts 4 16,550 4 17,063 8 19,583 0 3,033
SBIR/STTR (non-add) (2) (25) (0) (24) (0) (24) -(2) -(1)
  FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount
Intramural research 250 106,485 250 103,730 250 104,407 0 -2,078
Research management and support 88 24,413 96 25,947 96 26,122 8 1,709
Construction   0   0   0   0
Building and Facilities   0   0   0   0
Total, NHGRI 338 $512,258 346 $515,406 346 $517,319 8 $5,061


1/ All items in italics are "non-adds"; items in parenthesis are subtractions

FTTP = Full-time training positions
FTE = Full-time equivalent

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Major Changes in Fiscal Year 2014 Budget Request

Major changes by budget mechanism and/or budget activity detail are briefly described below. Note that there may be overlap between budget mechanism and activity detail and these highlights will not sum to the total change for the FY 2014 President's Budget request for NHGRI, which is $5.1 million more than the FY 2012 level, for a total of $517.3 million.

Understanding the Structure of Genomes (-$11.805 million; total $28.316 million): For several years, NHGRI has been decreasing its investment in this area, as knowledge about the structure of genomes has improved and as the cost of generating data for studying the structure of genomes has dropped (because of improvements in the technologies for sequencing DNA).  This shift in priority is consistent with the vision laid out by NHGRI in its 2011 strategic plan for the field of genomics. 

Understanding the Biology of Genomes (-$12.539 million; total $89.442 million): For the past several years, NHGRI's major investment in this strategic area has been the ENCODE (ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements) Project.  ENCODE has been implemented in a phased manner, with transition from the highly successful Phase II to the new Phase III occurring in FY 2012.  With the success of ENCODE to date and the ability to generate ENCODE data at lower costs than previously due to technology improvements, NHGRI decided to decrease slightly its activity in this area. This allowed resources to be reallocated towards other strategic research areas for NHGRI and the field of genomics, in particular those aiming to introduce genomics into medical practice.

Using Genomics to Understand the Biology of Disease (+$10.76 million; total $158.935 million): This increase in resources for using genomics to understand the biology of disease represents NHGRI's ongoing shift toward the support of research areas that use genomic tools to study the biological basis of disease. Such disease-oriented genomic studies are essential for achieving the Institute's longer-term objective of advancing human health through genomics research. 

Education and Training (+$7.036 million; total $28.5 million): NHGRI is in the process of better aligning its genomics-oriented education and training programs with the Institute's long-term strategic vision for the field of genomics.  The change in funding is thus a result of expanding our training and education programs in areas of particular need, such as bioinformatics/computational biology and genomic medicine.

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Summary of Changes
(Dollars in Thousands)

FY 2012 Actual $512,258
FY 2014 President's Budget $517,319
Net change
$5,061
CHANGES 2014
President's Budget
Change from FY 2012
FTEs Budget Authority FTEs Budget Authority
A. Built-in:        
1. Intramural research:        
a. Annualization of March 2013 pay increase & benefits   $37,027   $98
b. January FY 2014 pay increase & benefits   37,027   271
c. One more day of pay   37,027   140
d. Differences attributable to change in FTE   37,027   0
e. Payment for centrally furnished services   18,061   324
f. Increase cost of laboratory supplies, materials, other expenses, and non-recurring costs   49,319   149
Subtotal       $982
2. Research management and support:        
a. Annualization of March 2013 pay increase & benefits   $12,193   $38
b. January FY 2014 pay increase & benefits   12,193   90
c. One more day of pay   12,193   46
d. Differences attributable to change in FTE   12,193   0
e. Payment for centrally furnished services   510   10
f. Increase cost of laboratory supplies, materials, and other expenses   13,419   3
Subtotal       $187
Subtotal, Built-in       $1,169
B. Program:        
1. Research project grants:        
a. Noncompeting 185 $109,545 34 $17,649
b. Competing 87 44,450 -3 -1,970
c. SBIR/STTR 25 12,415 -1 1,100
Total 297 $166,410 30 $16,779
2. Research Centers 41 $184,217 -10 -$19,228
3. Other Research 32 6,737 3 3,408
4. Research Training 210 9,843 31 1,438
5. Research and Development Contracts 4 19,583 0 3,033
Subtotal, Extramural   $386,790   $5,430
  FTEs   FTEs  
6. Intramural research 250 $104,407 0 -$3,060
7. Research Management and Support 96 26,122 8 1,522
8. Construction   0   0
9. Buildings and Facilities   0   0
Subtotal, program 346 $517,319 3 $3,892
Total changes       $5,061

 

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Fiscal Year 2014 Budget Graphs

 

History of Budget Authority and FTEs:

Funding Levels by Fiscal Year. Bar chart indicating funding levels (in millions) for NHGRI from 2010 through 2014. 2010 = $515.8; 2011 = $511.5; 2012 = $512.3; 2013 = $515.4; 2014 = $517.3

Bar chart indicating FTE's by Fiscal Year from 2010 through 2014. 338 FTEs for FY 2010.  340 FTEs for FY 2011.  338 FTEs for FY 2012. 346 FTEs for FY 2013. 346 FTEs for 2014

Distribution by Mechanism:

FY 2014 Budget Mechanism (Dollars in Thousands) Pie chart indicating funding for fiscal year 2013 by budget mechanism. The pie has 7 slices. From largest to smallest the amounts are: Research Centers, $184,217 - 36%;  Research Project Grants, $166,410 - 32%; Intramural Research, $104,407 - 20%; Research Management & Support (RMS), $26,122 - 5%; R&D Contracts, $19,583 - 4%; Research Training, $9,843 - 2%; Other Research, $6,737 - 1%.

Changes by Selected Mechanism:

FY 2014 Estimate Percent Change from FY 2012 Mechanism. Bar chart showing percent change by mechanism. There are 7 bars. From top to bottom they are: Research Project Grants, 11.21; Research Centers, -9.45; Other Research, 102.37; Research Training, 17.11; R&D Contracts, 18.33; Intramural Research, -1.95; Resource Management and Support, 7.0

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Budget Authority by Activity

  FY 2012
Actual
FY 2013
CR
FY 2014
PB
Change vs.
FY 2012
Program Activity FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount
Detail:                
Understanding the Structure of Genomes   $40,121   $28,228   $28,316   -$11,805
Understanding the Biology of Genomes   101,981   89,144   89,442   -12,539
Using Genomics to Understand the Biology of Disease   148,175   158,361   158,935   10,760
Using Genomics to Advance Medical Science   29,034   33,631   33,784   4,750
Using Genomics to Improve the Effectiveness of Healthcare   9,603   13,104   13,164   3,561
Bioinformatics and Computational Biology   108,533   109,663   110,012   1,479
Education and Training   21,438   28,361   28,474   7,036
Genomics and Society   28,960   28,967   29,070   110
Subtotal, Program Activity*
  $487,845   $489,459   $491,197   $3,352
Extramural Research (non-add)   $381,360   $385,729   $386,790   $5,430
Intramural research (non-add) 250 $106,485 250 $103,730 250 $104,407 0 -$2,078
Research management and support 88 $24,413 96 $25,947 96 $25,122 8 $1,709
TOTAL 338 $512,258 346 $515,406 346 $517,319 8 $5,061

1. Inlcudes FTEs whose payroll obligations are supported by the NIH Common Fund.
2. Includes Real Transfer and Comparable Adjustments as detailed in the "Amounts Available for Obligation" table.
* The detail programs listed above include both extramural and intramural funding.

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Authorizing Legislation

 

  PHS Act/
Other Citation
U.S. Code Citation 2013 Amount
Authorized
FY 2013
CR
2014 Amount
Authorized
FY 2014 PB
Research and Investigation Section 301 42§241 Indefinite
Right Bracket comparing 2010 Amount Authorized between Research and Investigation and NHGRI
$515,406,000 Indefinite
Right Bracket comparing 2011 Amount Authorized between Research and Investigation and NHGRI
$517,319,000
National Human Genome Research Institute Section 401(a) 42§281 Indefinite Indefinite
Total, Budget Authority $515,406,000   $517,319,000

 

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Appropriations History

Fiscal Year Budget Estimate to Congress House Allowance Senate Allowance Appropriations
2005 $492,670,000 $492,670,000 $496,400,000 $492,670,000
Rescission       ($4,062,000)
2006 $490,959,000 $490,959,000 $502,804,000 $490,959,000
Rescission       ($4,910,000)
2007 $482,942,000 $482,942,000 $486,315,000 $486,491,000
Rescission       0
2008 $484,436,000 $493,996,000 $497,031,000 $495,434,000
Rescission       ($8,655,000)
Supplemental       $2,589,000
2009 $487,878,000 $504,603,000 $501,411,000 $502,367,000
Rescission       $0
2010 $509,594,000 $520,311,000 $511,007,000 $516,028,000
Rescission       $0
2011 $533,959,000   $533,127,000 $516,028,000
Rescission       ($4,531,033)
2012 $524,807,000 $524,807,000 $505,738,000 $513,844,000
Recission       ($971,165)
2013 $511,370,000    $512,920,000 $0
Recission       $0
2014 $517,319,000     $0

 

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Justification for Budget Request

Authorizing Legislation:

Section 301 and title IV of the Public Health Service Act, as amended.

Budget Authority (BA):
 
FY 2012 Actual
FY 2013 CR
FY 2014 President's Budget
FY 2014 +/- 2012
BA
$512,258,000
$515,406,000
$517,319,000
-$5,061,000
FTE
338
346
346
+8

Program funds are allocated as follows: Competitive Grants/Cooperative Agreements; Contracts; Direct Federal/Intramural and Other.

DIRECTOR'S OVERVIEW

In the decade since the completion of the Human Genome Project (HGP), genomics has become central to biomedical research, with remarkable genomic accomplishments seen across myriad disciplines.  The research funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) has catalyzed a transformation in how biomedical science is conducted, and genomic tools and strategies are now advancing toward clinical integration and the realization of genomic medicine. Genomic analyses increasingly shed light on fundamental knowledge about biology and its perturbation in disease.  NHGRI's leadership in high-throughput strategies and technology development continues to stimulate progress and innovation in basic and translational research, which in turn will enable the breakthroughs that will improve health outcomes for the nation.

In February 2011, NHGRI published a new strategic vision for genomics research 1. This updated vision articulates five research domains that together comprise a progressive continuum leading to the realization of genomics-informed medicine, namely understanding the structure of genomes; understanding the biology of genomes; understanding the biology of disease; advancing the science of medicine; and improving the effectiveness of healthcare.  To align its organizational components most effectively with current scientific opportunities, NHGRI recently reorganized its Extramural Research Program, establishing the following:

Through the collaborative management of the extramural research portfolio across these divisions, NHGRI will continue in Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 to build a foundation for future breakthroughs and to expand research activities within the more translational domains described in the strategic plan.

Genome Sciences: Previous and ongoing NHGRI investments in the development of innovative and more powerful methods for sequencing DNA, as well as in the refinement of existing technologies, are fueling a revolution in the biomedical sciences.  Researchers can now generate extremely high-resolution genomic data about an individual, a population, or even a single cell. Importantly, technological advancements spearheaded by NHGRI leadership have resulted in a phenomenal decrease in the cost of sequencing a human genome (more than four orders of magnitude since 2001).2  These decreases bring the type of genomic analyses once possible only in large-scale sequencing centers to research laboratories both large and small; they also make clinical genome sequencing applications closer to reality. Large specialized centers still have a vital role, both for training the next generation of genomics researchers and for refining genome-sequencing approaches and workflows that then get disseminated to the research community. The value of technology development is further complemented by bioinformatics tools and training modules that NHGRI-funded research programs are developing and making widely available.

Significant advances continue to be made in understanding the biology of genomes.  In September 2012, NHGRI's ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project published a landmark series of papers, the culmination of more than 1,600 experiments.  While protein-coding regions comprise less than two percent of the human genome, ENCODE results suggest that most of the rest of the genome serves a biological function.  In FY 2014, ENCODE investigators will identify and characterize more of these important genomic regions.  Since many of these elements contain DNA sequence variants previously linked to human disease, it is expected that future ENCODE data will help inform studies examining the clinical utility of genomic information.

Genomic Medicine: NHGRI-funded programs are using genomics to investigate common but genetically complex diseases that burden the health of the nation, such as asthma and diabetes. Scientists at the NHGRI's Genome Sequencing and Analysis Centers are investigating the genomic basis for conditions such as cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease, while multidisciplinary teams of clinicians, genomicists, bioinformaticians, and bioethicists funded through the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research (CSER) program are studying the challenges of utilizing genome-sequence data in the routine practice of medicine.  In FY 2014, NHGRI will continue to collaborate with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), a highly successful program that is transforming our knowledge about the genomic changes underlying cancer.  In the area of rare diseases, NHGRI recently established three centers to accelerate progress in studying the remaining thousands of rare diseases whose underlying genomic defect is not yet known.  Finally, NHGRI is now partnering with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) to fund research exploring the utility of genome sequencing in the newborn period.

Genomics and Society: Since its inception, NHGRI has funded research to examine the ethical, social, and legal implications (ELSI) of genomic advances and the increasing availability of genomic information.  Extramurally funded Centers of Excellence in ELSI Research (CEERs) and work in the institute's intramural research program have placed NHGRI at the forefront of bioethics research and training- indeed, NHGRI remains a leader in bioethics research at NIH.

The exploration of ELSI research questions is an integral component of several NHGRI clinical research initiatives, including the CSER program and the joint NHGRI/NICHD newborn sequencing studies.  ELSI researchers are also investigating numerous issues associated with the return of individual research results and incidental findings in genomics research.  In FY 2014 NHGRI will continue to fund and conduct research, as well as provide leadership, in this important area.

Genomics and Training: In order to ensure that the rapid pace of genomics research is maintained, it is imperative to train the next generation of researchers with robust expertise in genome sciences. In its Extramural Research Program, NHGRI supports training through a number of programs: institutional training grants, individual fellowships, NHGRI's Diversity Action Plan (DAP), supplements to recruit underrepresented minorities into research careers, and career development awards. In particular, NHGRI's DAP involves training scientists from diverse backgrounds, as well as conducting extensive outreach aimed at underrepresented minorities to inform them about the opportunities in genomics and ELSI research. In its Intramural Research Program, NHGRI also operates a wide range of training programs for post-baccalaureate students, pre- and post-doctoral scientists, physicians, and genetic counselors.

Beyond the Laboratory: DNA sequencing technologies advanced by NHGRI research are also generating public benefit through their application in other areas.  For instance, these new technologies are now being used to track infectious outbreaks in hospitals and to monitor the health of ecosystems.

In summary, NHGRI's portfolio of basic and translational research will continue to extend our knowledge about the human genome and how to apply that knowledge to advance human health.

Overall Budget Policy: The FY 2014 President's Budget request for NHGRI is $517.319 million, an increase of $5.061 million or +1.0 percent above the FY 2012 Actual level.  Funds are included in R&D contracts to support trans-NIH initiatives, such as the Basic Behavioral and Social Sciences Opportunity Network (OppNet).


1. Green ED, Guyer MS, and National Human Genome Research Institute. (2011). Charting a course for genomic medicine from base pairs to bedside. Nature, 470(7333): 204-213. Available at www.genome.gov/Pages/About/Planning/2011NHGRIStrategicPlan.pdf.

2. http://www.genome.gov/sequencingcosts/


Program Descriptions and Accomplishments

Understanding the Structure of Genomes: Understanding the structure of genomes will remain fundamental to NHGRI's research portfolio in FY 2014.  The 1000 Genomes project will continue sequencing the genomes of over 2,500 people from 26 populations around the world, providing key information about how the human genome varies between individuals.  The 1000 Genomes data are in a publicly accessible resource for the research community.  Leveraging this resource allows researchers to maximize the public investment in basic science and 'Big Data' initiatives, so that tomorrow's breakthroughs can happen more rapidly and at a lower cost.  1000 Genomes data are also being used to develop affordable technologies for individual genome analysis, which will eventually enable physicians to predict a person's risk for various diseases and to choose effective drugs and drug dosages.

The DNA Sequencing Technology Development Program has been one of NHGRI's most successful endeavors to date.  Launched in 2004 when the cost of sequencing the ~3 billion bases in an individual's genome cost tens of millions of dollars, the program has been responsible for breathtaking decreases in DNA sequencing costs that have outpaced cost reductions in the computer industry.  As a result, the cost of sequencing a human genome has fallen by many orders of magnitude to well below $10,000.  By the end of FY 2014, the goal of routine human genome sequencing at a cost of less than $1,000 will almost certainly be achieved.  Already, human genome sequencing - once only possible at a handful of large sequencing centers - can be performed at research and clinical laboratories large and small, allowing many NHGRI- and NIH-funded investigators the ability to generate much more data with the same amount of research dollars.  In turn, this progress enables studies on the genomic basis of disease as well as the sequencing of patients' genomes on a scale that could not have been contemplated a few years ago.  In FY 2014, NHGRI will continue to fund the development of innovative methods for DNA sequencing, with a focus on faster and more accurate genome sequencing for use in clinical care.

Budget Policy: The FY 2014 President's Budget estimate for Understanding the Structure of Genomes is $28.316 million, a decrease of $11.805 million or 29.4 percent less than the FY 2012 Actual level.  For several years, NHGRI has been decreasing its investment in this area, as knowledge about the structure of genomes has improved and as the cost of generating data for studying the structure of genomes has dropped (because of improvements in the technologies for sequencing DNA).  This shift in priority is consistent with the vision laid out by NHGRI in its 2011 strategic plan for the field of genomics.  The activities falling within Understanding the Structure of Genomes will continue NHGRI's signature efforts to decrease the cost of DNA sequencing and to complete the 1000 Genomes Project.  In FY 2014, NHGRI will continue its groundbreaking efforts to reduce the cost and improve the quality of DNA sequencing so that this technology, which has increasingly become central to biomedical research, can become a widely disseminated research tool and, beyond that, a clinical tool for healthcare.  As the highly successful 1000 Genomes Project publishes its large datasets, further analyses and collection of additional data will enrich the publicly-available resources that inform studies on the Biology of Disease.  Additional efforts will improve the reference genome sequences needed for efficiently analyzing thousands of human genome sequences collected in studies to identify variants underlying complex diseases.  The Institute also will continue to fund meritorious investigator-initiated applications submitted in response to announcements that encourage new technologies and new approaches to the analysis of genome structure, and the role that genome structure plays in the determination of human disease, disease susceptibility, and environmental sensitivities.

Understanding the Biology of Genomes: The ability to sequence an individual's genome is only part of the puzzle; it is also fundamental to understand how that genome functions. ENCODE is an NHGRI program that has greatly expanded our understanding of the complex molecular choreography required for converting genomic information into living cells and organisms.  NHGRI announced a $30 million expansion in cumulative ENCODE funding in September 2012 that will carry this program beyond FY 2014.  Seven production centers will expand the catalog of functional elements in the human and mouse genomes, especially those elements that lie outside of protein-coding regions, thus helping to characterize the most difficult regions to understand both for disease studies and for individual patients.  A considerably larger number of human cells and tissues will now be studied by ENCODE.  One production center will focus on novel functional roles played by RNA, an area that previously had not been studied in depth by ENCODE.  The companion effort to catalog functional elements in the mouse genome will focus on cell types that cannot be readily obtained from humans.  Further, NHGRI has established a data coordinating center and a data analysis center, which together will make the ENCODE data more useful to the scientific community; their activities will include the evaluation of data quality, the dissemination of data to the research community, and the analysis of the data to provide new biological insights.  To increase the use of ENCODE data, new efforts are being supported to develop novel computational methods to improve data analysis and to make the data more accessible for studying human biology and disease.

Building on ENCODE, NHGRI has advisory approval to start a new effort in FY 2014 called the Genomics of Gene Regulation (GGR) program.  Whereas ENCODE is developing a catalog of the genomic elements that play functional roles, GGR will aim to establish some of the 'choreography' that cells employ in using those functional elements in assembling and operating cells and tissues, specifically focusing on elements involved in regulating gene expression.
Budget Policy: The FY 2014 President's Budget estimate for Understanding the Biology of Genomes is $89.442 million, a decrease of $12.539 million or 12.3 percent less than the FY 2012 Actual level.  For the past several years, NHGRI's major investment in this strategic area has been the ENCODE (ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements) Project.  ENCODE has been implemented in a phased manner, with transition from the highly successful Phase II to the new Phase III occurring in FY 2012.  With the success of ENCODE to date and the ability to generate ENCODE data at lower costs than previously due to technology improvements, NHGRI decided to decrease slightly its activity in this area. This allowed resources to be reallocated towards other strategic research areas for NHGRI and the field of genomics, in particular those aiming to introduce genomics into medical practice.  In FY 2014, NHGRI will continue to support the collection and analysis of ENCODE data, including developing new tools to make uses of these data by the research community more efficient and effective.  Efforts will expand to integrate ENCODE data with other data types, and to understand how changes in functional elements in human genomes result in changes to biology that cause disease.  Also in FY 2014, support for the CEGS program will continue to stimulate highly innovative research approaches that will substantially advance genomic methods to the study of a biological problem, and to foster the wider application of comprehensive, high-throughput genomics methods to the study of human biology and disease. The Institute also will continue to fund meritorious investigator-initiated applications submitted in response to announcements that encourage new technologies and new approaches to the analysis of genome biology.
Program Portrait: Elucidating How Genes are Regulated

FY 2013 Level: $43.1 million
FY 2014 Level: $46.1 million
Change:            +$3.0 million

The decade of genomics research since the completion of the Human Genome Project has revealed much about the complexity of genome biology, yet our knowledge about how genes are controlled remains incomplete.  All cells are built from the same set of genomic instructions, but are as specialized and different as muscle cells, neurons, and blood cells because of the differential regulation of how genes are regulated. 

ENCODE is an ambitious NHGRI research program that is cataloging the functional regions of the human genome that regulate where and when individual genes or groups of genes are turned on or off.  In September 2012, ENCODE published a landmark series of 30 papers in the journals Nature, Genome Research, and Genome Biology, reporting the results of >1600 different experiments.  The magnitude and complexity of the data required creation of a novel way of accessing the findings, available at www.nature.com/encode

In FY 2014, ENCODE will significantly expand the numbers of functional DNA elements studied, as well as scaling up the analysis of RNA-binding proteins and RNA elements.  This resource of basic science is already being used by researchers across the biomedical research enterprise to power tomorrow's breakthroughs, and ENCODE data have been used by other scientists for important discoveries relevant to the study of Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease.

Just as differential gene regulation results in the many and varied cells and tissues that make up a human, subtle variation between the genomes of different individuals (less than 0.5 percent) is responsible for making each of us a unique person.  The 1000 Genomes project is an international research consortium led by NHGRI, the UK's Wellcome Trust, and BGI-Shenzhen of China.  The project is building the most detailed map of human genetic variation from genome sequence data generated from  >2,600 individuals from 26 different populations across the world.  1000 Genomes data are publicly available to researchers, and has already been successfully used to inform studies ranging from evolutionary biology to disease-focused research.

By 2014, the sets of data from both ENCODE and 1000 Genomes will be substantively expanded, providing key data resources for linking basic research results to studies exploring the biology of disease.

 

Using Genomics to Understand the Biology of Disease: An ultimate goal of the Human Genome Project was to establish how an individual's genetic code influences their health, and to apply that knowledge to optimize their health and prevent disease.  As our understanding of the structure and biological function of the human genome grows, NHGRI's research portfolio is expanding to develop approaches for using genomics to better understand the biology of disease.  In this manner, NHGRI's basic research will be translated to studying human disease and then, in turn, to improving health and healthcare.  

For instance, cancer is a genomic disease, as it is intricately linked to major alterations in an individual's genome.  The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), a collaboration between NHGRI and NCI, aims to apply genome-analysis technologies for cataloging the genomics alterations that occur in 25 different tumor types by 2014.  In September 2012, TCGA researchers published landmark findings about the major genomic alterations in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the most common form of lung cancer.  Importantly, these findings included the identification of a number of promising therapeutic targets that may lead to targeted clinical trials for patients with specific genomic alterations.  Also in September 2012, a separate group of TCGA researchers published research that has revealed new insights into the four primary subtypes of breast cancer. In this study, they discovered marked genomic similarities between a type of breast cancer ('basal-like' or 'triple negative') and a common form of ovarian cancer.  Computational analyses show that basal-like breast cancer and serous ovarian cancer might both be susceptible to drugs under development that inhibit blood vessel growth, thereby cutting off the blood supply to (and thus starving) the tumor, as well as to certain existing chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin.  In FY 2014, TCGA will expand its efforts to the analysis of 25 different tumor types.

NHGRI's Intramural Research Program is also pursuing research to advance knowledge about the genomic contributors to disease. In the case of common diseases, the ClinSeq project will be examining clinical strategies for widespread use of genome sequencing in a clinical setting, initially focusing on cardiovascular disease.  At the other end of the spectrum, rare diseases are the focus of the Undiagnosed Diseases Program (UDP), which draws on the resources and clinical expertise at the NIH Clinical Center to investigate medical mysteries, ideally arriving at diagnoses and possible treatment options for patients whose conditions have confounded medical experts, advancing our understanding about rare and common diseases in the process.

Budget Policy: The FY 2014 President's Budget estimate for Using Genomics to Understand the Biology of Disease is $158.935 million, an increase of $10.76 million or 7.3 percent more than the FY 2012 Actual level.  NHGRI will continue to maintain and update the GWAS Catalog and to support whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing for the discovery of disease-related genes and other functional genomic regions.  The Institute will continue to fund meritorious investigator-initiated applications that will increase the ability of genomics to enhance understanding of disease etiology and pathogenesis.

Program Portrait: Discovering Disease Genes

FY 2013 Level: $88.5 million
FY 2014 Level: $88.6 million
Change:            +$0.1 million

Determining the genomic basis for human disease was a major impetus behind the Human Genome Project, and continues to be a central focus of NHGRI research.  Current research programs in this area are discovering the causative genes across the spectrum of human disease, from rare and monogenic disorders to common complex diseases.  The Undiagnosed Diseases Program (UDP) is focused on diseases at the rarest end of this spectrum.  The highly successful and heavily subscribed UDP is a trans-NIH initiative, conceived and administered by NHGRI and conducted at the NIH Clinical Center.  UDP harnesses the expertise of a diverse range of medical specialties to provide answers to patients with mysterious conditions that have long eluded diagnosis, advancing our knowledge about rare and common diseases in the process. In response to an overwhelming demand, UDP will be expanded in FY 2014 through the NIH Common Fund to eventually create a network of medical research centers across the nation involved in the program.

For approximately half of the more than 6,000 rare inherited (Mendelian) diseases caused by a single mutated gene, the genetic culprit is not known.  An estimated 25 million Americans suffer from a Mendelian disease, ranging from well-known conditions such as cystic fibrosis to those that may affect only a few families.  In FY 2014, the NHGRI Mendelian Disorders Genome Centers Program, with support from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), will be funding three groups to systematically find the genetic underpinnings of these illnesses.  The Centers will collaborate with a worldwide network of rare disease experts to sequence the genomes of thousands of patients and their family members to identify the responsible genomic variants causing the underlying rare disease.

At the opposite end of the spectrum are complex diseases that are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the country, yet have complex genomic etiologies.  The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), a joint program between NHGRI and NCI, has been applying genome sequencing to gain new insights into cancer biology.  In September 2012, separate groups of TCGA researchers published findings about the number and variety of genomic alterations in the most common form of lung cancer and the four primary subtypes of breast cancer.  Importantly, these findings included the identification of some promising therapeutic targets.

 

Using Genomics to Advance Medical Science: Information from an individual patient's genome sequence will increasingly be used by clinicians to diagnose disease and guide therapeutic decision-making.  With our understanding about the underlying genomic basis for disease growing and the cost of DNA sequencing decreasing, we are already seeing early advances in medical science.  However, the adoption of genomic approaches in medical practice will require that genomic information be provided to clinicians in way that are easy to understand and use.  Importantly, research is needed to understand how best to execute this information transfer.

Important new activities in this area include NHGRI's Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research (CSER) program, which in FY 2014 will fund multidisciplinary teams at six centers to establish the analysis and interpretation tools, standard procedures, and institutional practices needed to integrate genome-sequence information into the clinical workflow.  Integral to the specific projects in this program are studies examining the significant bioethical issues relevant to: acquiring large amounts of genome-sequence data from patients as part of their medical care; deciding what genomic findings to return to patients; and deciding when and how to communicate such findings to patients and their families.  These groups are studying the use of genome sequencing in multiple areas (including cancer and cardiovascular disease), examining issues for pediatric as well as adult patients, and investigating the delivery of these advanced approaches to underserved minority populations.

Budget Policy: The FY 2014 President's Budget estimate for Using Genomics to Advance Medical Science is $33.784 million, an increase of $4.75 million or 16.4 percent more than the FY 2012 Actual level. Large-scale genome sequencing is increasingly being applied to the clinical diagnosis and potential treatment of diseases in programs such as the Undiagnosed Diseases Program and the Electronic Medical Records and Genomes Pharmacogenomics Program (eMERGE-PGx).  Many of the new opportunities will be pursued in collaboration with other NIH Institutes/Centers.  The Institute will continue to fund meritorious investigator-initiated applications that will improve the understanding and application of genomic function in risk assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of human disease.

Using Genomics to Improve the Effectiveness of Healthcare: Building a robust research portfolio in this area requires a broad foundation of research accomplishments within the four areas listed above, and it will be many years before a significant proportion of genomics research is focused on this.  Nonetheless, to ensure readiness for this responsibility, NHGRI is beginning to fund preliminary research in this area.  The Electronic MEdical Records and GEnomics (eMERGE) Network currently consists of a nine-member consortium of research centers and healthcare providers, and is investigating the utility and practical challenges of integrating patients' genomic information with their electronic medical records, with a focus on genomic information relevant to patients' responses to medications.  The combined genomic and phenotypic (observable traits, characteristics, and symptoms) information collected in the electronic medical records enables novel approaches to clinical research and patients' ongoing clinical care.  In FY 2014, the eMERGE Network will also explore the complex ethical, legal, and social issues involved with the use of electronic medical records for genomics research and the return of genomic information to patients, as well as developing best practices for the sharing of genomic data.

Also in FY 2014, NHGRI will fund between three and five collaborative Genomic Medicine Demonstration Projects in collaboration with NCI to develop methods for, and evaluate the feasibility of, incorporating an individual patient's genomic findings into his or her clinical care.  This program aims to: define barriers to implementing genomic medicine in general, and consider how they relate to diverse clinical settings and populations; develop and disseminate solutions to these barriers, as well as the processes needed for genomic medicine implementation; assess outcomes of genomic medicine implementation projects; and identify outcomes most important to ensuring rapid and sustained adoption of genomic medicine as a medical discipline.

Budget Policy: The FY 2014 President's Budget estimate for Using Genomics to Improve the Effectiveness of Healthcare is $13.164 million, an increase of $3.561 million or 37.0 percent more than the FY 2012 Actual level.  NHGRI will continue in FY 2014 to support this area of research in the Clinically Relevant Variants Resource to assess evidence for clinical relevance of genomic variation and the Genomic Medicine Demonstration Projects to test new approaches for implementing genomic medicine to improve healthcare. The Institute also will continue to fund meritorious investigator-initiated applications, and to collaborate with other NIH Institutes/Centers in studying genomic applications to healthcare.

Program Portrait: Operationalizing Genomic Medicine

FY 2013 Level: $25.2 million
FY 2014 Level: $33.8 million
Change:            +$8.6 million

As NHGRI's investment in basic genomics research expands our knowledgebase about the structure of the genome, its biological function, and its role in human disease, researchers are increasingly able to translate that knowledge for medical applications.  Genomic medicine is an emerging medical discipline that involves using genomic information about an individual as part of their clinical care for diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making.  The incorporation of genomic medicine as a routine component of clinical care requires that the effectiveness of using genomic information to improve health outcomes be demonstrated.  In FY 2014, NHGRI's Extramural Research Program will support research and NHGRI's  Intramural Research Program will conduct clinical studies to generate such evidence.

For example, the Clinically Relevant Variants Resource program aims to develop a consensus approach for collecting, abstracting, and evaluating the published research regarding the clinical relevance of genomic variants associated with clinically important traits.  The synthesis of these data and their supporting evidence into a user-friendly electronic resource will stimulate further research, and serve as the substrate for development of practice guidelines by professional and clinical organizations.

The Genomic Sequencing and Newborn Screening Disorders Program, funded in conjunction with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), aims to explore specific scientific challenges and opportunities related to the use of emerging genome-sequencing technologies in the context of newborn screening.  In FY 2014, this program will fund multidisciplinary research studies to collect comprehensive genomic sequence datasets from newborns, and investigate how genome sequencing might be applied to newborn screening to gain new insights into newborn health.

Bioinformatics and Computational Biology: A consequence of the rapid reduction in the cost of DNA sequencing is that the computational analysis of the generated data - rather than the actual generation of that sequence data - has become the major bottleneck in genomics research.  Recognizing this, NHGRI funds bioinformatics and computational biology research projects to improve how scientists manage and analyze the large volumes of data generated by genome sequencing, and to develop methods to visualize the data in ways that enable non-specialists to interpret the data.  As genomic information is increasingly incorporated into clinical practice, this will be crucial, as the healthcare providers who will be using these data will most often not be genomics experts themselves.  In FY 2014, NHGRI will develop programs that aim to computationally integrate the large datasets characteristic of genomics research (including those produced by 1000 Genomes, ENCODE, the NIH Common Fund Epigenomics project, and others), thereby adding value to each and enabling their broad use by the community of biomedical researchers.

Budget Policy: The FY 2014 President's Budget estimate for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology is $110.012 million, an increase of $1.479 million or 1.4 percent more than the FY 2012 Actual level. Activity in Bioinformatics and Computational Genomics research will increase with efforts to manage the increasing amount and complexity of genomic data.  This will be accomplished through support of databases that collect and efficiently present, to basic and clinical research scientists, datasets that grow rapidly in size and complexity.  Considerable support will be provided to developing new algorithms for analyzing and integrating genomic data, and making those software tools more widely accessible.  Efforts to increase the efficiency of data storage and distribution will continue, to match the growing size of genomic datasets produced as studies expand on the genomic contributions to disease. The Institute also will continue to fund meritorious investigator-initiated applications submitted in response to announcements that encourage new technologies and new approaches to the rapidly emerging issue of public access to large genomic datasets.

Education and Training: An appropriately trained workforce and public will be essential for the beneficial realization of genomic advances.  Scientists will need to be trained in bioinformatics and computational analyses as well as biological sciences.  Healthcare professionals will need to understand the connections between genomic data and its medical applications.  The public will need to understand the basics of genomics and the link between their own genome and their health.  To that end, FY 2014 will bring efforts by NHGRI to foster and support many education and training activities aimed at various core audiences: the next generation of genomics and genomic medicine researchers; healthcare providers; and the general public (through the incorporation of genomics into primary and secondary education, as well as lifelong learning outreach).

To stimulate the development of programs that meet these needs and in response to high-priority areas identified by a working group of the National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research, NHGRI will support training programs in the following areas in FY 2014: statistics; bioinformatics; translation of basic genomics into clinical practice; and development and exploration of new genomic technologies for the early detection of disease.  These areas of expertise, which are necessary to take full advantage of the very large datasets generated by both basic and clinical genomics studies, were identified as lacking in the workforce.

Budget Policy: The FY 2014 President's Budget estimate for Education and Training is $28.474 million, an increase of $7.036 million or 32.8 percent more than the FY 2012 Actual level.  In FY 2014, NHGRI will continue its support for training the next generation of genomics researchers, as well as programs aimed at bringing genomics to healthcare professionals and the general public.  NHGRI also plans to increase its support for training in the following areas: bioinformatics, data science, and genomic medicine.

Genomics and Society:Since its inception, NHGRI has dedicated five percent of its research funding to examine the ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) of genomic advances and the increasing availability of genomic information in society.  This research area continues to be a vital component of the Institute's strategic vision.  In FY 2014, the program will continue to explore issues that arise in the design and conduct of genomics research, particularly those related to the clinical applications of genomics.  Questions of particular interest include those related to informed consent for genomics research; privacy issues arising from the use of large-scale research databases; when and how to return individual genomic results to research participants; and whether and how to provide information about unanticipated health-related genomic findings to participants.

In addition to multiple standing funding announcements to stimulate ELSI research, the NHGRI-funded Return of Results Consortium, a group of investigators conducting normative and empirical research on issues relating to the return of research results and incidental findings in the context of genomics research and clinical care, will begin in FY 2014 to generate results that should inform future genomic medicine programs.  In addition, other clinical and laboratory projects (such as the CSER Consortium, the eMERGE Network, and the newborn screening initiative) will include elements that address ELSI questions.

Within the Institute's Intramural Research Program, the Social and Behavioral Research Branch will continue in FY 2014 to conduct leading-edge research testing the effectiveness of strategies for communicating information about genetic risks; develop and evaluate behavioral interventions relevant to genomics; analyze how to use genomic discoveries in clinical practice; and explore the social, ethical, and policy implications of genomics research.

Budget Policy: The FY 2014 President's Budget estimate for Genomics and Society is $29.070 million, an increase of $0.11 million or 0.4 percent more than the FY 2012 Actual level. This amount represents more than the 5.0 percent of the total NHGRI budget that NHGRI is legislatively mandated to spend in this area of research. In FY 2014, NHGRI will continue to support the ELSI research program and the Intramural Research Program's Social and Behavioral Research Branch in their efforts to anticipate and address the social, legal, and ethical issues that will arise from new information about the human genome and the genetic contributions to human disease, in addition to the development of new approaches for applying that information to the improvement of human health.

Research Management and Support: NHGRI's Division of Policy, Communications, and Education uses Research Management and Support funds to provide key leadership for a number of ongoing initiatives, including National DNA Day and other educational outreach activities, as well as community-focused genomics programs.  NHGRI also continues to provide leadership in the area of healthcare professional education, developing web-based resources such as the Genetics/Genomics Competency Center (G2C2) [g-2-c-2.org] (a central repository for health professional education resources) and the Global Genetics and Genomics Community (G3C) [g-3-c.com] (a bilingual collection of virtual case studies that provide students with a self-guided learning experience.)

Budget Policy: The FY 2014 President's Budget estimate for the Research Management and Support program is $26.122 million, an increase of $1.709 million or 7.0 percent more than the FY 2012 Actual level. In FY 2014, NHGRI will continue to improve efficiencies in travel and conferences in an effort to reduce costs. NHGRI also plans to continue addressing the challenges and opportunities that exist in strategically managing a research portfolio that addresses areas of critical research.

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Budget Authority by Object Class
(Dollars in Thousands)

  FY 2012 Actual FY 2014 PB Increase or Decrease
Total compensable workyears:      
Full-time employment 338 346 8
Full-time equivalent of overtime and holiday hours 0 0 0
Average ES salary (in whole dollars) $173,632 $174,327 $695
Average GM/GS grade 12.3 12.3 0.0
Average GM/GS salary (in whole dollars) $100,067 $100,503 $436
Average salary, grade established by act of July 1, 1944
(42 U.S.C. 207) (in whole dollars)
$103,992 $105,760 $1,768
Average salary of ungraded positions (in dollars) $134,869 $135,409 $540
OBJECT CLASSES FY 2012 Actual FY 2014 PB Increase or Decrease
Personnel Compensation:      
11.1 Full-time permanent $15,742 $16,751 $1,009
11.3 Other than full-time permanent 16,097 16,486 389
11.5 Other personnel compensation 516 553 37
11.7 Military personnel 707 731 24
11.8 Special personnel services payments 3,961 4,035 74
Total, Personnel Compensation $37,023 $38,556 ($1,533)
12.0 Personnel benefits $9,757 $10,156 $399
12.2 Military personnel benefits 498 508 10
13.0 Benefits for former personnel 0 0 0
Subtotal, Pay Costs $47,278 $49,220 $1,942
21.0 Travel and transportation of persons $1,881 $1,881 $0
22.0 Transportation of things 126 126 0
23.1 Rental payments to GSA 0 0 0
23.2 Rental payments to others 4 4 0
23.3 Communications, utilities and miscellaneous charges 419 419 0
24.0 Printing and reproduction 23 23 0
25.1 Consulting services 759 825 66
25.2 Other services 20,519 17,701 (2,818)
25.3 Purchase of goods and services from government accounts 59,668 62,607 2,939
25.4 Operation and maintenance of facilities 328 328 0
25.5 Research and development contracts 1,899 2,407 508
25.6 Medical care 561 561 0
25.7 Operation and maintenance of equipment 2,173 2,173 0
25.8 Subsistence and support of persons 0 0 0
25.0 Subtotal Other Contractual Services $85,907 $86,602 $695
26.0 Supplies and materials $7,992 $7,992 $0
31.0 Equipment 3,835 3,835 0
32.0 Land and structures 9 9 0
33.0 Investments and loans 0 0 0
41.0 Grants, subsidies and contributions 364,783 367,207 2,424
42.0 Insurance claims and indemnities 0 0 0
43.0 Interest and dividends 1 1 0
44.0 Refunds 0 0 0
Subtotal, Non-Pay Costs $464,980 $460,099 $3,119
Total Budget Authority by Object $512,258 $517,319 $5,061


Includes FTEs whose payroll obligations are supported by the NIH Common Fund for Medical Research.

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Salaries and Expenses
(Dollars in Thousands)

OBJECT CLASSES FY 2012 Actual FY 2014 PB Increase or Decrease
Personal Compensation:      
Full-time permanent (11.1) $15,742 $16,751 $1,009
Other than full-time permanent (11.3) 16,097 16,486 389
Other personnel compensation (11.5) 516 553 37
Military personnel (11.7) 707 731 24
Special personnel services payments (11.8) 3,961 4,035 74
Total Personnel Compensation (11.9) $37,023 $38,556 $1,533
Civilian personnel benefits (12.1) $9,757 $10,156 $399
Military personnel benefits (12.2) 498 508 10
Benefits to former personnel (13.0) 0 0 0
Subtotal, Pay Costs $47,278 $49,220 $1,942
Travel (21.0) $1,881 $1,881 $0
Transportation of things (22.0) 126 126 0
Rental payments to others (23.2) 4 4 0
Communications, utilities, and miscellaneous charges (23.3) 419 419 0
Printing and reproduction (24.0) 23 23 0
Other Contractual Services:      
Advisory and assistance services (25.1) 759 825 66
Other services (25.2) 20,519 17,701 (2,818)
Purchases from government accounts (25.3) 47,069 47,488 419
Operation and maintenance of facilities (25.4) 328 328 0
Operation and maintenance of equipment (25.7) 2,173 2,173 0
Subsistence and support of persons (25.8) 0 0 0
Subtotal Other Contractual Services $70,848 $68,515 ($2,333)
Supplies and materials (26.0) $7,988 $7,988 $0
Subtotal, Non-Pay Costs $81,289 $78,956 ($2,333)
Total, Administrative Costs $128,567 $128,176 ($391)

 

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Details of Full-Time Equivalent Employment (FTEs)

Office/Division FY 2012Actual FY 2013 CR FY 2014 PB
Civilian Military Total Civilian Military Total Civilian Military Total
Office of the Director                  
Direct: 6 0 6 6 0 6 6 0 6
Reimbursable: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total: 6 0 6 6 0 6 6 0 6
Division of Management                  
Direct: 26 0 26 26 0 26 26 0 26
Reimbursable: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total: 26 0 26 26 0 26 26 0 26
Office of Policy, Communications and Education                  
Direct: 11 0 11 11 0 11 11 0 11
Reimbursable: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total: 11 0 11 11 0 11 11 0 11
Division of Intramural Research                  
Direct: 218 8 226 218 8 226 218 8 226
Reimbursable: 24 0 24 24 0 24 24 0 24
Total: 242 8 250 242 8 250 242 8 250
Division of Genome Sciences                  
Direct: 9 0 9 12 0 12 12 0 12
Reimbursable: 4 0 4 4 0 4 4 0 4
Total: 13 0 13 16 0 16 16 0 16
Division of Genomic Medicine                  
Direct: 11 0 11 11 0 11 11 0 11
Reimbursable: 2 0 2 2 0 2 2 0 2
Total: 13 0 13 13 0 13 13 0 13
Division of Genomics and Society                  
Direct: 4 0 4 6 0 6 6 0 6
Reimbursable: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total: 4 0 4 6 0 6 6 0 6
Division of Extramural Operations                  
Direct: 13 0 13 16 0 16 16 0 16
Reimbursable: 2 0 2 2 0 2 2 0 2
Total: 15 0 15 18 0 18 18 0 18
Total 330 8 338 338 8 346 338 8 346
Includes FTEs whose payroll obligations are supported by the NIH Common Fund.
FTEs supported by funds from Cooperative Research and Development Agreements.
 
Fiscal Year Average GS Grade
2010 12.1
2011 12.1
2012 12.3
2013 12.3
2014 12.3

 

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Detail of Positions

GRADE FY 2012 Actual FY 2013 CR FY 2014 PB
Total, ES Positions 2 2 2
Total, ES Salary 347,265 347,265 347,265
GM/GS-15 30 30 30
GM/GS-14 23 28 28
GM/GS-13 51 51 51
GS-12 49 50 50
GS-11 17 17 17
GS-10 3 3 3
GS-9 6 6 6
GS-8 17 17 17
GS-7 1 2 2
GS-6 0 1 1
GS-5 0 0 0
GS-4 0 0 0
GS-3 1 1 1
GS-2 0 0 0
GS-1 0 0 0
Subtotal 198 206 206
Grades established by Act of July 1, 1944 (42 U.S.C. 207):      
Assistant Surgeon General 0 0 0
Director Grade 5 5 4
Senior Grade 2 2 2
Full Grade 1 1 1
Senior Assistant Grade 0 0 0
Assistant Grade 0 0 0
Subtotal 8 8 8
Ungraded 147 147 147
Total permanent positions 208 213 213
Total positions, end of year 355 363 363
Total full-time equivalent (FTE) employment, end of year (YE) 338 346 346
Average ES salary 173,632 173,632 174,327
Average GM/GS grade 12.3 12.3 12.3
Average GM/GS salary 100,067 100,102 100,503

Includes FTEs whose payroll obligations are supported by the NIH Common Fund.

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Posted: April 10, 2013