Summary of Grantees' Workshop on Strategies for Increasing the Number of
Underrepresented Minorities Participating in Genomics and ELSI Research

Bethesda Marriott Hotel
Bethesda, Md.

November 28, 2001

Table of Contents

I. BACKGROUND

In April 2001 the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) convened a meeting to explore new and innovative ideas and models for increasing the number of underrepresented minorities pursuing research careers in genomics and ELSI (ethical, legal and social implications) research. Invitees included individuals from universities and organizations that have a long and successful history of training minorities in research. After a sustained and dynamic discussion of the issues, the meeting participants suggested a number of principles and activities that have been proven effective and that NHGRI should consider as it moves forward in this area. From these discussions, staff developed the Action Plan: the Plan for Increasing the Number of Underrepresented Minorities Trained in Genomics and ELSI Research. The National Advisory Council on Human Genome Research (NACHGR) endorsed the plan at its May 2001 Council meeting. Subsequent to the NACHGR meeting, the action plan was sent to all grantees. In an effort to provide grantees and staff with information and ideas about: (1) strategies for recruiting and retaining minorities in graduate research programs and (2) successful programs for providing graduate research training and research experiences to minorities, the director of NHGRI invited grantees to a meeting at which experts in these areas provided insights into these two major areas. The agenda and list of attendees can be found in Appendices A and B, respectively. This report is a compilation of the experts' advice in these areas.

In opening the meeting, Dr. Francis Collins, director of NHGRI emphasized two things: (1) NHGRI must increase the number of underrepresented minorities involved in genomics and ELSI research and (2) the NHGRI will provide the financial support to make this happen.

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II. THE PIPELINE ISSUE

(Dr. Clifton Poodry, National Institute of General Medical Sciences and Dr. Merna Villarejo, University of California, Davis)

A. Identifying the Student Pool

A concern expressed by scientists looking for graduate students who are minorities is the small size of the pool. Data were presented to show that there are adequate numbers of minorities graduating with BS degrees in scientific disciplines relevant to biomedical research:

  • 12.5 percent of the BS graduates in biochemistry and biology are minorities; 15 percent of the BS graduates in psychology are minorities.
     
  • Five percent of the Ph.D graduates in biochemistry and biology graduates are minorities; 12 percent of the Ph.D graduates in psychology are minorities.
     
  • The completion rate for doctoral degrees for minorities is one-half that of non-minorities (25 percent versus 50 percent). Thus, if minority graduate students could be retained in graduate school at the same rate as non-minority graduate students, the number of minority graduate students would be immediately doubled.

Majority institutions are often overlooked as recruitment sites for minorities interested in graduate school. The National Science Foundation (NSF) has developed a database, WebCASPAR, which provides information about the science and engineering workforce. A list of the top ten universities that produce undergraduate students who then go on to graduate school includes a mix of majority institutions and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU).

Top Ten Producers of BS Graduates in Biochemistry and Biology (1995-1999) Top Ten Producers of BS Graduates in Psychology(1995-1999)
University of PR, Rio Piedras Campus University of PR, Rio Piedras Campus
University of PR, Mayaguez Campus Howard University
Howard University University of PR, Mayaguez Campus
University of Texas at Austin Florida International University
University of California-Berkeley Spelman College
University of California-Los Angeles University of California-Los Angeles
University of California-Davis University of California-Berkeley
Stanford University University of Miami
Spelman College University of Florida
Texas A&M University Main University of Maryland at College Park

In addition to going to universities and colleges to recruit students, other potential sources for recruiting students are scientific and professional organizations that cater to the specific needs of minority student scientists. Although this list is not exhaustive, some of the organizations mentioned included:

Attendees were encouraged to contact these organizations to get on the speaker's list and to visit the poster sessions and talk to minority students about their research and future career plans.

Grantees should not overlook the importance of promulgating the success stories of their minority students through the print media or on their websites. This is good public relations for minority students who are considering enrolling in your institution. It sends a strong signal that students are actively pursuing interesting research projects and that the environment is a good place for them to thrive and survive as future scientists.

B. Predictors of Success in Obtaining an Undergraduate Degree in Biology

The University of California, Davis has been the recipient of a grant from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences to increase the number of undergraduate students, minority students in particular, graduating with a BS degree in biology. The program, Biology Undergraduate Scholars Program (BUSP) was initiated in 1988; over 700 students have benefited from this program to date. The program provides incoming freshmen students with a solid academic background in chemistry, mathematics and biology and an opportunity to participate in research projects during their freshman and sophomore years. The program is in the process of being evaluated and these are some of the outcomes (based on the 397 students who entered in 1988-94):

  • Students who came to college prepared to take calculus or pre-calculus did better academically than those who required remedial algebra.
  • Students who did not have strong math skills did better if they deferred taking general chemistry until their sophomore year.
  • High school grade point average was a better predictor of success than SAT scores.
  • Students who had a research experience in biology were more likely to graduate and were more likely to graduate with a degree in biology than those who did not.
  • Pursuing a research project in the freshman year proved to be a distraction, primarily because students were getting adjusted to college life and lacked laboratory skills. Students now take a laboratory skills course in the summer following the completion of their freshman year.

Limited data for the classes of 1993-1994 indicate that success in obtaining an undergraduate degree was not correlated with the educational achievements or socioeconomic background of the parents. Part of the challenge of the program is to redirect the career interests of the students from medical school to biomedical research. (http://www.busp.ucdavis.edu/)

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III. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION STRATEGIES

(Dr. Richard Morimoto, Northwestern University; Gayle Slaughter, Baylor College of Medicine; Dr. Steven Soper, Louisiana State University; and Dr. Barbara Trask, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and University of Washington)

Over the past year, several National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes have held meetings to discuss how to increase the number of minorities participating in biomedical research. The National Institute of General Medical Sciences' meeting report contains valuable information and was used as the basis for this discussion (http://www.nigms.nih.gov/Training/Pages/default.aspx). The point was made that the magnitude of the recruitment effort must be equal to the magnitude of the retention effort. In other words, it is not sufficient to recruit students; institutions must provide the type of environment that will allow students to survive and thrive in a rigorous research and academic setting. The following factors were identified as being critical to an institution's ability to recruit and graduate minorities.

Institutional Commitment. It is important that the institution develop policies that demonstrate its commitment to increasing the number of underrepresented minorities in the sciences. This commitment can be in the form of: (1) resources to support faculty and staff dedicated to this effort, to defray the cost of recruitment trips by faculty, and to support recruitment interviews of graduate school candidates; (2) develop and support enrichment programs that prepare prospective students to take on the more rigorous academic and research challenges; (3) support minority students to participate in the institution's recruitment efforts; (4) flexible admission policies to allow for students who may need additional courses or time in order to meet the admission requirements; (5) retention policies that allow students to progress at their own pace, assuming that they are meeting the university's requirements; establish individualized development plans for each student and monitor progress; (6)facilitation of collaborative research and training efforts between research intensive institutions and minority serving institutions; an institutional commitment ensures that such collaborations will survive changes in faculty interests by providing program continuity; (7) and encourage, support and reward faculty who become involved in the institution's recruitment and retention efforts. Participants felt that faculty who took the time to mentor and nurture graduate students who needed extra help were not adequately rewarded or recognized for their efforts.

Partnerships. Partnerships between research-intensive institutions and minority serving institutions were considered excellent ways to recruit minorities. There are several good models of collaboration. Northwestern has set up a partnership with Chicago State, which has a Masters program, but not a doctoral program. After graduation, some of these students participate in a post baccalaureate program in which they work in research laboratories, audit courses and take exams and get familiar with a research intensive environment, thus easing the transition to a doctoral graduate program. Meharry and Vanderbilt have developed a formal consortium in which doctoral students enrolled in one institution may take courses at the other institution and also select a mentor from another university as their thesis advisor. Partnerships can also be developed at various levels; for example, an institution located in an urban area might consider sponsoring a weekend institute for high school students in an effort to enhance the students' capabilities in the basic sciences and to provide them with critical skills for college and research.

Several points were made about partnerships: (1) The relationship must be bi-directional and equal if the relationship is to be maintained. As an example, each faculty member from the partnership should be invited to give a research seminar at the other's institution. (2) Institutions should be cautious about the number of partnerships that they develop. If too many partnerships are developed, there will not be adequate time to ensure a serious collaboration. (3) Partnerships take time to develop.

Faculty Involvement. The recruitment and retention of minorities in graduate programs rest on faculty involvement. Faculty, rather than administrators, are in the best position to convey the excitement of the science to prospective graduate students. Minority students can also help in this effort, but it is the faculty member who controls the research environment. Faculty can help students by providing them with the critical skills needed to become an independent researcher, such as how to prepare and make effective presentations, how to write scientific papers, and how to think analytically and critically, by inviting them to attend scientific and professional meetings and present their research findings, by encouraging them to publish their research, etc. At the same time, it is important to provide an environment where students can take risks. Working in groups, rather than individually, was also seen as a way to boost students' confidence and to prepare them for a real work situation. In addition to taking care of students' academic and research needs, faculty also need to be sensitive to cultural issues. As an example, it was noted that there are many Native American tribes and the cultural differences among them are vast; knowing one culture does not mean that you automatically know all of them. It is important that faculty be trained as mentors and be sensitive to different learning styles of students; the brightest scientist may not always be the best mentor.

It was pointed out by several attendees technicians may be potential recruits for graduate school and that opportunities should be made for individuals to pursue graduate school.

Considerations in Recruiting Underrepresented Minority Students. Some of the things to consider in recruiting minority students are:

  • Having only one minority student in a laboratory or department may lead to isolation. It is important to build a critical mass of students from the various racial/ethnic groups.
  • Good students do not come solely from research-intensive universities.
  • Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores should not be considered the major factor in selecting students. High school grade point averages have been shown to be good predictors of success in undergraduate school. In reviewing records of prospective students, things to look for would be are the students making great strides in improving their academic preparedness for graduate school and how motivated are they to pursue a doctoral program.
  • Do not have different standards for different groups of students; have high expectations for all students.
  • Minority students are very successful at recruiting other minority students.
  • It is important to foster and create diversity in your research group; this is the way the real world will look when students find permanent employment.
  • Support group participation in associations or societies (locally or nationally) that foster academic excellence and leadership.
  • For many students, adequate financial support is essential to the continuation and completion of graduate studies.
  • The recruitment of minority students should not be the sole responsibility of minority faculty.
  • In selecting students to mentor, faculty should consider selecting minority and non-minority students over foreign students who may have the background to move the research project faster. Supporting future US researchers should be a consideration in making such decisions.

Retention Strategies. Some strategies that have proved successful in retaining students in graduate school include:

  • Providing academic support throughout the years, such as individualized course plans, faculty mentors, tutoring, access to a resource library, implementing a minority seminar speakers' series, and providing information on grant writing.
  • Skills building workshops that discuss how to choose a mentor, how to write applications, how to write abstracts, prepare slides, present posters and short talks, and how to network.
  • Meetings that facilitate student/student and student/PI interactions, update students on issues and make recommendations for action, and provide time to work on special projects, recruitment and outreach.
  • Prepare students for doctoral candidacy examinations by providing resource library materials, loaning laptop computers, and providing an opportunity for students to practice their presentation to and receiving critiques from advanced students.

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IV. Selected Examples of Successful Research Experiences/Training Programs

(Dr. Kim Nickerson, American Psychological Association; Ms. Mary Ellen Jackson, Meyerhoff Scholars Program, University of Maryland, Baltimore Campus; Dr. Carlos Castillo-Chavez, Mathematical and Theoretical Biology Institute for Undergraduate Research, Cornell University; Dr. Marigold Linton, Kansas University and Haskell Indian Nations University and; Dr. Maria Fatima Lima. Meharry/Vanderbilt Consortium, Meharry Medical College.

The NHGRI Action Plan encourages grantees to come up with programs to increase the number of minorities participating in genomics and ELSI research. In an effort to stimulate creative ideas, individuals who had developed different types of programs talked about what made their programs successful.

  • American Psychological Association's Research Training Program. This is an example of a traditional NIH training program that is managed by a professional society, rather than an academic institution, although the actual training is provided in the academic setting. This type of management has many positive attributes: it has access to a large membership base; it is not constrained by geography; and it has access to the society's resources and communication network. The APA has several training models, but all include a summer institute where students learn critical skills and a mentoring network. The APA has sponsored NIH-supported training programs since 1974. (http://www.apa.org/)
     
  • Meyerhoff Scholars Program. This program was started in 1988. It originally started as an undergraduate program and has recently been extended to encompass a graduate program. The elements of the program that make it so successful are: (1) The program is open to top mathematics and science students nationwide. (2) Students cannot apply for the program, their high school guidance counselor or other school official must nominate them. (3)Students must have a summer research experience that can be pursued nationally or internationally. (4) Monetary support is provided. (4) Group learning is encouraged. (5) Students, usually as a group, must participate in a community service project. (6) Students must attend cultural arts activities of their choosing. (7) The program has a large and committed group of mentors from the faculty and local area professions.

    The program has a strong monitoring and mentoring plan. A full-time academic advisor works with freshmen and sophomores. Incoming freshmen meet with their advisor three times in the first semester. The advisors also assist graduates of the program with graduate or professional school placement.

    The overall 12-year retention rate is approximately 95 percent. Eighty-four percent of the participants are enrolled in graduate or professional degree programs. (Meyerhoff Programs) [umbc.edu]
     
  • Mathematical and Theoretical Biology Institute for Undergraduate Research. This is an eight to nine week summer program for students majoring in mathematics who wish to have a research experience prior to graduate school. The academic environment is grade free and students work in groups and select their own research project. The program also exposes students to a survival course. Other program enhancements include living together in a group home and group trips and recreational activities. Since 1996, MTBI students have produced 60 papers and have received recognition at major scientific meeting for their research. Each year, approximately 11 students enter graduate school. The students are monitored for six years following the completion of the program. If a student is having a problem in graduate school, they are invited back to the summer institute for a refresher course. (http://math.asu.edu/~mtbi/.)
     
  • Bridges Program for Native Americans. The Bridges Program provides a research experience in an academic research institution to students enrolled in two-year colleges. This particular program is a partnership between Kansas University and Haskell Indian Nations University. In addition to a research experience, tutoring and special classes are provided in courses that are critical to success in graduate school-mathematics, chemistry and biology. The key elements of this partnership are: strong institutional commitment; adequate funding from NIH; faculty willing to host American Indian students; faculty willing to adjust to the academic and cultural needs of the students; a commitment to ongoing friendship between the two institutions; a commitment to the development of all students; and close geographic location. (mlinton@ku.edu)
     
  • Vanderbilt/Meharry Consortium. The terms of this alliance were finalized in 1999 under a Memorandum of Understanding that was signed in 1998. The alliance is built on trust and is implemented by student-faculty and faculty-faculty interactions. The terms of the agreement include the mutual benefits to both institutions, allows both parties to enhance educational, scientific collaborations at and between institutions, seeks to minimize duplications of programs and establishes linkages in complementary areas. The consortium currently holds several training grants from NIH; the program directors of the training programs are approximately evenly divided between the two institutions. Under the consortium, students can take courses or chose research mentors from either institution. (http://www.meharry-vanderbilt.org/)

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V. OTHER ISSUES RELATED TO MINORITY RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION

During the course of the meeting, issues were raised by the participants that were not adequately addressed because of lack of time or lack of expertise to address the issue.

  • Undergraduate Loan Repayment. Many minority students graduate from their undergraduate institution with a heavy debt burden. If the NIH could offer a loan repayment program for college expenses incurred in undergraduate school, more minority students might seek a graduate education.
     
  • Training for Genetic Counselors. There are very few genetic counselors that are minorities. Support for the training of minorities was considered a critical need in the minority community.

    (Note: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) normally supports the training of allied heath professions. NIH has traditionally supported the training of researchers.
     
  • Support for Minorities in Canada and Mexico. Some of the HG-supported grants are in institutions that are situated near Canada and Mexico. These countries have populations that are underrepresented in the biomedical sciences in the United Sates. Participants inquired about NHGRI's willingness to support the research training of these individuals.

    (Note: The NIH training and career development programs are specifically designed to increase the research capacity of institutions in the United States by limiting such opportunities to U.S. citizens or permanent residents of the United States.)
     
  • Adjustment of Stipends Based on Geography. The NIH has one stipend for graduate students and postdoctoral fellows. There are differences in the cost of living for different geographic areas. This disparity in compensation due to geographic location affects greatly those students who reside in areas where the cost of living is high.

    (Note: the NIH sets NRSA stipend levels. There have been many discussions at the NIH in which the community has participated regarding stipend levels adjusted for geographic location and scientific discipline. Whereas efforts have been made in the past several years to make substantial increases in overall stipend levels, no discussions have taken place regarding adjustments based on geography or scientific disciplines. Supplementation of stipends from any non-federal source, such as university funds or pharmaceutical companies is acceptable.)
     
  • Salary Support for New PIs Who Are Minorities. New faculty members have a difficult time obtaining their first grant, this is particularly true for minority faculty. Efforts should be made to provide grant support to minority investigators.

    (Note: The NHGRI has the K22 award for genome scientists who are transitioning into tenure-track faculty positions. As yet, no requests have been received from underrepresented minorities. It should be stated, that given the small number of minorities being trained as genome scientists, it may take a while before they seek funding.)
     
  • Support for the Development of Undergraduate Curricula. Some life science majors drop out of general chemistry because the course work is not necessarily relevant to their scientific interest. If the chemistry curriculum were made more relevant to life science majors, perhaps more students would be interested in taking chemistry.

    (Note: The NSF supports curriculum development. NHGRI would be willing to consider supplementing curriculum development to make it more relevant to biology. This discussion should be pursued with program directors at the NSF. This may also be an opportunity for the chemistry and life sciences faculty to collaborate in developing a curriculum that serves the needs of the life sciences.)

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VI. CONCLUSIONS

The meeting ended with a free-flowing discussion between the attendees and the staff. Grantees were encouraged to think of creative ways to involve minorities in their research programs with the overall program goal of increasing the number underrepresented minorities participating in genomics and ELSI research. In order to make this happen, the leadership of the institute was unwavering in its commitment to provide financial support for these efforts. Grantees were strongly encouraged to discuss their ideas with program staff prior to submitting any proposal.

Document completed December 11, 2001

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VII. Attendees and Speakers

Nicole Barna
Senior Operations Coordinator
Center for Genome Research
Whitehead Institute/Massachusetts Institute
of Technology
320 Charles Street
Cambridge, MA 02141
(617) 258-0900
(617) 258-0903 Fax
nab@genome.wi.mit.edu

James A. Benn, Ph.D.
Senior Engineer
Genome Therapeutics Corporation
100 Beaver Street
Waltham, MA 02453
(781) 398-2568
(781) 398-2472 Fax
jbenn@genomecorp.com

Bruce Birren, Ph.D.
Co-Director
Genome Sequencing Program
Center for Genome Research
Whitehead Institute/Massachusetts Institute
of Technology
320 Charles Street
Cambridge, MA 02141
(617) 258-0900
(617) 258-0903 Fax
birren@genome.wi.mit.edu

Judith A. Blake, Ph.D.
Principal Investigator
Mouse Genome Informatics
The Jackson Laboratory
600 Main Street
Bar Harbor, ME 04609
(207) 288-6248
(207) 288-6132 Fax
jblake@informatics.jax.org

Michael Boehnke, Ph.D.
Professor
Department of Biostatistics
School of Public Health
University of Michigan
Building 2, Room M4108
1420 Washington Heights
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029
(734) 936-1001
(734) 763-2215 Fax
boehnke@umich.edu

James P. Brody, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
Center for Biomedical Engineering
University of California, Irvine
REC 204
Code 2715
Center for Biomedical Engineering
Irvine, CA 92697-2715
(949) 824-2471
jpbrody@uci.edu

David R. Burgess, Ph.D.*
Professor
Department of Biology
Boston College
140 Commonwealth Avenue
Chestnut Hill, MA 02467
(617) 552-1606
(617) 552-1340 Fax
david.burgess@bc.edu

David T. Burke
Associate Professor
Associate Research Scientist
Department of Human Genetics
University of Michigan Medical School
University of Michigan
4909 Buhl
1241 East Catherine Street
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-0618
(734) 647-3823
dtburke@umich.edu

Carlos Castillo-Chavez, Ph.D.*
Professor and Director
Mathematical and Theoretical Biology Institute
Cornell University
434 Warren Hall
Ithaca, NY 14853-7801
(607) 255-8103
(607) 255-4698 Fax
cc32@cornell.edu

Pieter de Jong, Ph.D.
Research Scientist
Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute
5700 Martin Luther King Jr. Way
Oakland, CA 94609
(510) 450-7919
pdejong@chori.org

Sean R. Eddy, Ph.D.
Assistant Investigator
Howard Hughes Medical Information
Alvin Goldfarb Distinguished Professor
of Genetics
Department of Genetics
School of Medicine
Washington University
Box 8232
660 South Euclid
St. Louis, MO 63110
(314) 362-7666
(314) 362-7855 Fax
eddy@genetics.wustl.edu

Janan T. Eppig, Ph.D.
Staff Scientist
Director
Mouse Genome Database
The Jackson Laboratory
600 Main Street
Bar Harbor, ME 04609
(207) 288-6422
(207) 288-6132 Fax
jte@informatics.jax.org

Russ Finley, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics
Wayne State University School of Medicine
Scott Hall
540 East Canfield Avenue
Detroit, MI 48201
(313) 577-7845
(313) 577-5218 Fax
rfinley@genetics.wayne.edu

Mary Ellen Jackson, M.S.W.*
Program Coordinator
Meyerhoff Program
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Howard Hughes Medical Institute
1000 Hilltop Circle
Baltimore, MD 21250
(410) 455-3124
(410) 455-1174 Fax
mejackson@umbc.edu

Allison Kang, M.P.H.
Graduate Student
Public Health Genetics
Research Technologist
Genome Center
University of Washington
Room 225
Fluke Hall on Mason Road
Box 352145
Seattle, WA 98195
(206) 543-4431
allikang@u.washington.edu

Isaac Kohane, M.D., Ph.D.
Director, Informatics Program
Associate Professor
Department of Medicine
Division of Endocrinology
Harvard Medical School
Children's Hospital
Enders 5
300 Longwood Avenue
Boston, MA 02115
(617) 355-7821
(617) 355-7588 Fax
isaac_kohane@harvard.edu

Sudhir Kumar, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
Department of Biology
College of Liberal Arts and Sciences
Arizona State University
Life Sciences 351
Tempe, AZ 85287-1501
(480) 727-6949
(480) 965-2519 Fax
s.kumar@asu.edu

Eric S. Lander, Ph.D.
Member, Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research
Professor of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Director, Whitehead Institute/Massachusetts Institute of Technology Center for Genome Research
Geneticist (Medicine), Massachusetts General Hospital
Whitehead Institute/Massachusetts Institute
of Technology Center for Genome Research
Building 300
1 Kendall Square
Cambridge, MA 02139-1561
(617) 252-1906
(617) 252-1933 Fax
lander@genome.wi.mit.edu

Honghua Li, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Department of Molecular Genetics
and Microbiology
The Cancer Institute of New Jersey
Robert Wood Johnson Medical School
University of Medicine and Dentistry
of New Jersey
195 Little Albany Street
New Brunswick, NJ 08903
(732) 235-8056
(732) 235-7330 Fax
holi@umdnj.edu

Mary E. Lidstrom, Ph.D.
Associate Dean of New Initiatives
Professor
Department of Chemical Engineering
Department of Microbiology
College of Engineering
University of Washington
Box 352180
Seattle, WA 98195-2180
(206) 543-8388
(206) 543-6264 Fax
lidstrom@u.washington.edu

Maria F. Lima, Ph.D.*
Dean
School of Graduate Studies and Research
Meharry Medical College
1005 Dr. D.B. Todd, Jr., Boulevard
Nashville, TN 37208
(615) 327-6533
(615) 321-2933 Fax
mflima@mmc.edu

Patrick A. Limbach, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Department of Chemistry
McMicken College of Arts and Sciences
University of Cincinnati
P.O. Box 210172
Cincinnati, OH 45221
(513) 556-1871
(513) 556-9239 Fax
pat.limbach@uc.edu

Marigold Linton, Ph.D.*
Director
American Indian Outreach
University of Kansas
Strong Hall, Room 250
1450 Jayhawk Boulevard
Lawrence, KS 66045-7535
(785) 864-4904
(785) 864-4463 Fax
mlinton@ku.edu

William R. McCombie, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Genome Research Center
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
500 Sunnyside Boulevard
Woodbury, NY 11797
(516) 422-4087, ext. 4083
(516) 422-4109 Fax
mccombie@cshl.org

John D. McPherson, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Co-Director
Genome Sequencing Center
Department of Genetics
Washington University School of Medicine
Box 8501
4444 Forest Park Avenue
St. Louis, MO 63108
(314) 286-1800
(314) 286-1810 Fax
jmcphers@watson.wustl.edu

Richard I. Morimoto, Ph.D.*
Dean, Graduate School
John Evans Professor of Biology
Northwestern University
2153 North Campus Drive
Evanston, IL 60202
(847) 491-3340
(847) 491-4461 Fax
r-morimoto@northwestern.edu

David C. Muddiman, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry
and Molecular Biophysics
Virginia Commonwealth University
1001 West Main Street
Richmond, VA 23284
(804) 828-7510
(804) 827-0710 Fax
dcmuddim@mail1.vcu.edu

Richard M. Myers, Ph.D.
Professor of Genetics
Director
Stanford Human Genome Center
Department of Genetics
Stanford University School of Medicine
Room M-344
300 Pasteur Drive
Stanford, CA 94305-5120
(650) 725-9687
(650) 725-9689 Fax
myers@shgc.stanford.edu

Kim J. Nickerson, Ph.D.*
Assistant Director
Minority Fellowship Program
American Psychological Association
750 First Street, NE
Washington, DC 20002-4242
(202) 336-5981
(202) 336-6012 Fax
knickerson@apa.org

Maynard V. Olson, Ph.D.
Professor
Division of Medical Genetics
Department of Medicine and Genome Sciences
Genome Center
University of Washington
Room 225
Fluke Hall on Mason Road
Box 352145
Seattle, WA 98195
(206) 685-7346
(206) 616-5242 Fax
mvo@u.washington.edu

Joel D. Oppenheim, Ph.D.*
Associate Dean for Graduate Studies
School of Medicine
New York University
550 First Avenue
New York, NY 10016
(212) 263-8001
(212) 263-7600 Fax
oppenj01@popmail.med.nyu.edu

Clifton Poodry, Ph.D.*
Director
Division of Minority Opportunities in Research
National Institute of General Medical Sciences
National Institutes of Health
Building 45, Room 2AS.37
45 Center Drive
Bethesda, MD 20892-6200
(301) 594-3900
(301) 480-2753 Fax
poodryc@nigms.nih.gov

Bruce A. Roe, Ph.D.
George Lynn Cross Research Professor
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
University of Oklahoma, Norman
Chemistry Building, Room 311
620 Parrington Oval
Norman, OK 73019
(405) 325-4912
(405) 325-7762 Fax
broe@ou.edu

Daniel Rokhsar
Joint Genome Institute
University of California, Berkeley
366 Leconte Hall
Berkeley, CA 94708
(925) 296-5810 FAX
dsrokhsar@lbl.gov

Charmaine D.M. Royal, Ph.D.*
Assistant Professor
National Human Genome Center
Howard University
Suite 207
2216 Sixth Street, NW
Washington, DC 20059
(202) 806-4450
(202) 265-1434 Fax
croyal@howard.edu

Shirley Brody Russell, Ph.D.*
Professor and Chairperson
Department of Microbiology
Meharry Medical College
1005 Dr. D.B. Todd, Jr., Boulevard
Nashville, TN 37208
(615) 327-6281
(615) 327-6281 Fax
srussell@mmc.edu

Pamela Sankar, Ph.D.
Center for Bioethics
University of Pennsylvania
Center for Bioethics
Suite 320
3401 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19104
(215) 573-9378
(215) 573-3036 Fax
sankarp@mail.med.upenn.edu

Sanjay Sadashiv Shete, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
Department of Epidemiology
Division of Cancer Prevention
M.D. Anderson Cancer Center
University of Texas
1515 Holcombe Boulevard
Houston, TX 77030
(713) 745-2483
(713) 792-8261 Fax
sshete@mdanderson.org

Dong-Guk Shin, Ph.D.
Professor
Computer Science and Engineering
University of Connecticut
MC U-3155
191 Auditorium Road
Storrs, CT 06269-3155
(860) 486-2783
(860) 486-4817 Fax
shin@engr.uconn.edu

Gayle Slaughter, Ph.D.*
Director of Special Projects
Baylor College of Medicine
Room N204L
1 Baylor Plaza
Houston, TX 77030
(713) 798-6644
(713) 798-6325 Fax

NHGRI Staff

Joy T. Boyer
Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications
Research Program
National Human Genome Research Institute
National Institutes of Health
Building 31, Room B2-B07
31 Center Drive
Bethesda, MD 20892-2033
(301) 402-4997
(301) 402-1950 Fax
jb40m@nih.gov

Lisa D. Brooks, Ph.D.
Program Director
Genetic Variation Program and Genome
Informatics Program
National Human Genome Research Institute
National Institutes of Health
Building 31, Room B2-B07
MSC 2033
31 Center Drive
Bethesda, MD 20892-2033
(301) 435-5544
(301) 480-2770 Fax
lisa_brooks@nih.gov

Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D.
Director
National Human Genome Research Institute
National Institutes of Health
Building 31, Room 4B-09
MSC 2152
31 Center Drive
Bethesda, MD 20892-2152
(301) 496-0844
(301) 402-0837 Fax
fc23a@nih.gov

Elise A Feingold, Ph.D.
Program Director
Genome Analysis
National Human Genome Research Institute
National Institutes of Health
Building 31, Room B2-B07
MSC 2033
31 Center Drive
Bethesda, MD 20892-2033
(301) 496-7531
(301) 480-2770 Fax
elise_feingold@nih.gov

Adam Felsenfeld, Ph.D.
Program Director
Large-Scale Sequencing
National Human Genome Research Institute
National Institutes of Health
Building 31, Room B2-B07
31 Center Drive
Bethesda, MD 20892
(301) 496-7531
(301) 496-7531 Fax
adam_felsenfeld@nih.gov

Lynn Frampton, M.P.H.
Science Program Analyst
National Human Genome Research Institute
National Institutes of Health
Building 31, Room B2-B07
MSC 2033
31 Center Drive
Bethesda, MD 20892-2033
(301) 496-7531
(301) 480-2770 Fax
framptol@mail.nih.gov

Peter J. Good, Ph.D.
Program Director
Genome Informatics Program
National Human Genome Research Institute
National Institutes of Health
Building 31, Room B2-B07
31 Center Drive
Bethesda, MD 20892-2033
(301) 435-5796
(301) 480-2770 Fax
peter_good@nih.gov

Bettie J. Graham, Ph.D.
Program Director
Division of Extramural Research
National Human Genome Research Institute
National Institutes of Health
Building 31, Room B2-B07
31 Center Drive
Bethesda, MD 20892
(301) 496-7531
(301) 480-2770 Fax
bettie_graham@nih.gov

Mark Samuel Guyer, Ph.D.
Assistant Director for Scientific Coordination
National Human Genome Research Institute
National Institutes of Health
Building 31, Room B2-B07
31 Center Drive
Bethesda, MD 20817
(301) 496-7531
(301) 480-2770 Fax
mark_guyer@nih.gov

Linda Marie Hall
Grants Management Officer
Grants Administration Branch
National Human Genome Research Institute
National Institutes of Health
Building 31, Room B2-B34
MSC 2031
31 Center Drive
Bethesda, MD 20892-2031
(301) 435-7859
(301) 402-1951 Fax
lh62g@nih.gov

Elke Jordan, Ph.D.
Deputy Director
National Human Genome Research Institute
National Institutes of Health
Building 31, Room 4B-09
MSC 2152
31 Center Drive
Bethesda, MD 20892-2152
(301) 496-0844
(301) 402-0837 Fax
ej10d@nih.gov

*Experts

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VIII. Workshops Agenda

8:30 a.m.
Welcome and Purpose of the Meeting
Francis S. Collins, Director, National Human Genome Research Institute

9:00 a.m.
The Size of the Pool and Major Producers of Doctoral Students
Clifton Poodry, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, NIH

9:30 a.m.
Research Experiences as a Predictor of Academic Success
Merna R. Villarejo, University of California, Davis

10:00 a.m.
Panel Discussion: Recruitment and Retention Strategies
Gayle R. Slaughter, Baylor College of Medicine
Richard I. Morimoto, Northwestern University
Stephen A. Soper, Louisiana State University
Barbara J. Trask, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center

11:30 a.m.
Lunch
(Small Group Discussions Between Resource People and Grantees)

1:00 p.m.
Panel Discussion: Successful Research Experiences/Training Programs
Minority Fellowship Program (American Psychological Association)
Kim J. Nickerson, Meyerhoff Program (University of Maryland),
Mary Ellen Jackson, Mathematical Sciences Summer Program (Cornell University),
Carlos Castillo-Chavez, Bridges Program for Native Americans (Haskell Indian Nations College and University of Kansas),
Marigold Linton, Vanderbilt/Meharry Consortium
Maria Fatima Lima (Meharry Medical College)

3:00 p.m.
Open Discussion
What are NHGRI's training priorities?
What NHGRI resources are available?
What can NHGRI do to assist you?

4:00 p.m.
Closing Remarks
Elke Jordan

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IX. Footnotes

  1. Ethical, legal and social implications of genomics and genetics research
     
  2. For the purpose of this report, African Americans, Alaskan Natives, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, and Pacific Islanders are considered underrepresented in the sciences.

    Because the purpose of research training and career development programs is to increase the research capability of U.S. citizens, there opportunities are open only to U.S. citizens or permanent residents of the United States.

    Throughout this report, minority will refer to underrepresented minority.

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Last Reviewed: October 24, 2012