The National Institutes of Health's genome institute launched the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements, or ENCODE, project in 2003 to identify all the functional parts of the human genome, from protein-encoding genes to the regulatory elements that turn genes on and off.
On Tuesday, October 4, 2011, the institute released three new Requests for Applications (RFAs) in which it announced plans to invest more than $120 million over four years (or about $31.5 million in FY 2012) to expand ENCODE research. These RFAs will extend these resources towards as complete a catalogs as is feasible employing state-of-the-art technologies; will continue to make the data rapidly accessible to the research community; and will support the analysis of ENCODE data.
Eight years ago, ENCODE started with a pilot project focused on 1 percent of the genome. In 2007, the ENCODE project was expanded to analysis of the entire human genome, and the modENCODE project was formed to identify all the functional parts of the fruit fly and worm genomes. The ENCODE projects create catalogs of functional elements to help researchers understand how genomes work and provide community resources that have been used by the researchers throughout the world to produce remarkable insights into genome function.
With the publication of NHGRI's strategic plan in early 2011, the institute recognized the compelling need to continue to generate comprehensive catalogs of genomic data for understanding the biology of genomes as well as their importance in to the study of medical conditions, both common and rare diseases. The ENCODE catalog, for example, provides an important resource that researchers have begun to use to understand the genetic foundations of disease, such as by combining ENCODE data with results from Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) that identify genetic variants associated with traits and diseases.
"ENCODE will help inform researchers about basic biology and will give new insights into disease, especially since so many disease-associated genetic variants fall outside of the genes," said Elise Feingold, Ph.D., program director for ENCODE projects. "The more we annotate the genome, the more we have a chance to understand and identify causative variants and how they contribute to health or disease."
The newly released RFAs fall into three categories:
NHGRI encourages inquiries concerning these funding opportunities and welcomes the opportunity to answer questions from potential applicants. NHGRI will offer a teleconference information session for these RFAs on noon to 3 p.m. EDT on Oct. 31, 2011. To obtain logistical information for the teleconference, researchers should send an e-mail to email@example.com.
Last Reviewed: March 9, 2012