Genome Statute and Legislation Database Search

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  • Content Type: State Statute
  • Topic: Research
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State Citation/Title Ascending Order
(link to state's page)
Topic(s) Summary
Arizona State Statute
opens new window Arizona: ARS 12-2801 et seq.
Privacy,
Research
Information derived from genetic testing my only be released to the person tested or others with written authorization from the person tested with some exceptions, including but not limited to (1) a researcher for medical research and public health purposes, only if the research is conducted pursuant to applicable federal or state laws and regulations, (2) if the identity of the individual providing the sample is not disclosed to the person collecting and conducting research; or (3) a third person if approved by a human subjects review committee or human ethics committee, with respect to persons who are subject to a state cancer registry. The law also places restrictions on disclosure or compelling disclosure, requires consent from a parent or legal guardian of a minor to conduct genetic testing other than newborn screening, and requires written informed consent for genetic testing by health care providers with some exceptions.
Arkansas State Statute
opens new window Arkansas: Ark. Code 20-35-101 et seq.
Privacy,
Research
No individual records of subjects in genetic research studies approved by an institutional review board or conducted subject to the requirements of the federal common rule may be subpoenaed or subject to discovery in civil suits except in cases where the information in the records is the basis of the suit. These records may not be disclosed to an insurer or employer without the informed written consent of the subject. Stored tissues, including blood, that arise from surgery or other diagnostic and therapeutic steps may be disclosed for genetic or other research studies if the patients name or social security number is not attached to or included with the specimen. Identifying information may be disclosed with the informed written consent of the individual. Published results may not identify a subject unless the individual has provided specific informed consent.
California State Statute
opens new window California: Cal. Health and Safety Code 124170 et seq.
Research Provides for the protection of human subjects participating in medical experiments. Enacts the Experimental Subject's Bill of Rights, which details informed consent requirements.
Colorado State Statute
opens new window Colorado: CRS 10-3-1104.6
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy,
Research
Genetic information the property of the individual, and written consent is required for its disclosure other than for diagnosis, treatment or therapy. Health care entities may not retain or use genetic information for non-therapeutic purposes or request or require a genetic test; however, test results may be used on a limited basis to make payment decisions. Exceptions under the law include the use of genetic information for scientific research if the identity of the individual to whom the genetic information pertains is not disclosed to a third party other than the individuals physician with written consent. The law provides remedies for individuals whose rights are violated.
Colorado State Statute
opens new window Colorado: CRS 10-3-1104.7
Other Lines of Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy,
Research
Genetic information is the property of the individual to whom it pertains. Release of genetic information that identifies the person tested for purposes other than diagnosis, treatment and therapy requires specific written consent. Exemptions under the law include some uses by research facilities. Researchers may use genetic testing information for scientific research as long as the identity of any individual to whom the information pertains is not disclosed to any third party except that the individuals identity may be disclosed to the individuals physician with written consent. Group disability or long-term care insurers that receive genetic information may not seek, use or keep the information for any non-therapeutic or underwriting purpose. Life insurers and individual disability insurers may not perform a genetic test without informed consent. Penalties are set forth for unfair trade practices with respect to group disability and long-term care insurance.
Delaware State Statute
opens new window Delaware: Del. Code 16 1201 et seq.
Privacy,
Research
Informed consent is required to obtain or retain genetic information about an individual. Exemptions include anonymous research where the identity of the subject will not be released. A sample from which genetic information has been obtained must be promptly destroyed with certain exceptions, including retention for anonymous research. An individual may inspect, request correction of and obtain genetic information from the records of that individual. The law sets forth civil penalties for violations.
Georgia State Statute
opens new window Georgia: OCGA 33-54-1 et seq.
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy,
Research
Genetic information is the property of the individual tested. Prior written authorization is required for genetic testing and release of results to anyone other than the person tested. A fraternal benefit society, a nonprofit medical service corporation, a health care corporation, a health maintenance corporation, or a self-insured health plan not subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of ERISA may not seek information derived from genetic testing, and if it is received, the information may not be used for any nontherapeutic purpose or be released without explicit written consent. Exceptions include scientific research facilities, which may conduct genetic testing and use information derived from testing for scientific research if the identity of any individual tested is not disclosed to any third party, except to an individual's physician with consent.
Iowa State Statute
opens new window Iowa: IC 507B.4
513B.9A and 513B.10
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy,
Research
Health insurers may not discriminate based on genetic information or tests. Authorization is required to obtain genetic information or samples. Consent requirements are established to collect, retain, transmit or use genetic information. Exceptions under consent requirements include medical or scientific research and eduction and for use in medical repositories and registries if it does not contain personally identifiable information. Health insurers may not release genetic information without prior written authorization. Exceptions for release requirements include (1) if an individual is participating in research settings, including those governed by the federal policy for the protection of human subjects, and (2) tests conducted purely for research. A carrier or organized delivery system offering group health insurance coverage may not establish rules for eligibility or continued eligibility based on a health status-related factors, including genetic information, or impose a pre-existing condition exclusion based on genetic information in the absence of a diagnosis.
Louisiana State Statute
opens new window Louisiana: LRS 22:1023
40:2210
and 22: 1097
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy,
Research
The statutes prohibit discrimination based on genetic information of an individual or family member or the request or receipt of genetic services by a hospital, health, or medical expense insurance policy, hospital or medical service contract, employee welfare benefit plan, health and accident insurance policy, preferred provide organization or any other insurance contract of this type. Other restrictions also are placed on these entities with respect to genetic information and testing. An insurer offering individual or group health insurance coverage may request a genetic test if the request is made in compliance with the Common Rule and other specified criteria are met. Exceptions under the law include anonymous research where the identity of the subjects will not be released. An insured or enrollees genetic information is the property of the individual to whom it pertains and may not be retained without authorization with some exceptions. Civil penalties for violations are set forth.
Louisiana State Statute
opens new window Louisiana: LRS 23:302
23:352 and 23:368
Employment Nondiscrimination,
Research
An employer, labor organization, or employment agency may not (1) discriminate against any employee based on genetic information, (2) require, collect, purchase, or disclose genetic information or information about a request or receipt of genetic services with respect to an employee, or (3) maintain genetic information or information about a request for or the receipt of genetic services in general personnel files. Exceptions regarding disclosure include disclosure to an occupational or other health researcher if the research complies with Part 46 of Title 45 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Additional prohibitions apply to labor organizations with respect to membership and to employers, labor organizations and employment agencies with respect to training. Employers, employment agencies and labor organizations also may not discriminate because an individual has sickle cell trait.
Maine State Statute
opens new window Maine: MRS 22 1711C
Privacy,
Research
An individual's health care information, including information about individual cells or their components or genetic information, is confidential. Authorization is required to disclose this information other than to the individual by the health care practitioner or facility with some exceptions. The definition of health care information excludes information that protects the anonymity of the individual by means of encryption or encoding of individual identifiers or information pertaining to or derived from federally sponsored, authorized or regulated research governed by 21 Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 50 and 56 and 45 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 46, to the extent that such information is used in a manner that protects the identification of individuals.
Maine State Statute
opens new window Maine: MRS 24A 2159-C and 24A 6981
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Other Lines of Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Research
A carrier that issues individual or group hospital, health or dental insurance and the Dirigo Health Self-administered Plan may not discriminate against an individual or eligible dependent on the basis of genetic information, the refusal to submit to a genetic test, refusal to make available the results of a genetic test, or based on the receipt of a genetic test or genetic counseling. A carrier may request, but not require, that an individual undergo a genetic test if the request is made pursuant to research that complies with the Common Rule and other specified criteria are met. Life, credit life, disability, long-term care, accidental injury, specified disease, hospital indemnity or credit accident insurers or an annuity may not discriminate unfairly, which includes the use of genetic test results in a manner that is not reasonably related to anticipated claims experience.
Maryland State Statute
opens new window Maryland: MD Health Code 13-2001 et seq.
Research The law prohibits research using a human subject unless the person conducts the research in accordance with the federal regulations on the protection of human subjects.
Maryland State Statute
opens new window Maryland: Md. Insurance Code 27-909
and Md. Health-General Code 19-706
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy,
Research
An insurer, nonprofit health service plan, or health maintenance organization, which does not include life insurance policies, annuity contracts, long-term care insurance policies, or disability insurance policies, may not (1) use a genetic test, the results of a genetic test, genetic information, or a request for genetic services to affect a health insurance policy or contract, (2) request or require a genetic test, the results of a genetic test, or genetic information for certain purposes, or (3) release identifiable genetic information or the results of a genetic test except for internal business and to a participating health care provider without prior written authorization. Disclosure of identifiable genetic information to an employee or authorized health care provider may only be for the purpose of providing medical care to patients or conducting research approved by an institutional review board established in accordance with federal law. The insurance commissioner has the authority to issue orders where a violation is found.
Massachusetts State Statute
opens new window Massachusetts: MGL Public Health 111 70G
Other Lines of Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy,
Research
Genetic information contained in reports or records held by hospitals, laboratories, physicians, insurance institutions and others named in the statute may not be divulged without informed written consent with some exceptions, which include in connection with life, disability, and long term care insurance, as allowable, or as confidential research information for use in epidemiological or clinical research conducted for the purpose of generating scientific knowledge about genes or learning about the genetic basis of disease or for developing pharmaceutical and other treatments of disease. Additional provisions concerning the performance of genetic tests apply to laboratories and other facilities. Organizations conducting pharmoco-economic studies in systematic research to determine the cost benefits of specific treatment for genetic based disease are exempt from the need to re-obtain informed consent. A person whose rights have been violated may bring a civil action.
Minnesota State Statute
opens new window Minnesota: MS 62A.31
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Research
An issuer of a Medicare supplement policies or certificates may not deny or condition the issuance or effectiveness of insurance, including pre-existing condition exclusions, on the basis of genetic information. These entities also may not discriminate with respect to pricing on the basis of genetic information; request or require an individual or family member to undergo a genetic test; or use the manifestation of disease in an individual as genetic information about another group member and to further increase premiums for the group. Insurers may request a genetic test from an individual or family member only if the request is pursuant to research that applies to the Common Rule and other criteria are met.
Missouri State Statute
opens new window Missouri: MRS 375.1300 and 375.1309
Privacy,
Research
This section of the law is applicable to all insurance companies. A person who creates, stores, receives or furnishes genetic information must hold such information as confidential medical records and must obtain written authorization to disclose genetic information. Exceptions include statistical data compiled without reference to the identity of an individual, health research conducted in accordance with the provisions of the federal Common Rule, and health research using medical archives or databases in which the identity of individuals is protected from disclosure by coding or encryption, or by removing all identities. The director of insurance has the authority to enforce these provisions.
Montana State Statute
opens new window Montana: MCA 33-18-901 et seq.
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Research
An insurer, health service corporation, health maintenance organization, fraternal benefit society, or other issuer of an individual or group policy or certificate of insurance may not discriminate based on a persons genetic traits. These entities also may not underwrite or condition coverage on a requirement or agreement to take a genetic test or on genetic information of an individual or his or her family member, and they may not seek genetic information for a purpose that is unrelated to assessing or managing ones health, inappropriate in an asymptomatic individual, or unrelated to research in which a subject is not personally identifiable. These entities may not require an individual to obtain a genetic test also with some exceptions. The law does not apply to life, disability income or long-term care insurance.
Nevada State Statute
opens new window Nevada: NRS 629.101 et seq.
Privacy,
Research
It is unlawful to obtain any genetic information of a person without informed consent with some exceptions, including for use in a study where the identities of the persons from whom the genetic information is obtained are not disclosed to the person conducting the study. It is unlawful to retain genetic information that identifies a person without first obtaining the informed consent with some exceptions. Except as otherwise provided, a person who obtains the genetic information for use in a study must destroy that information upon completion of the study or withdrawal of the person from the study. Criminal penalties and a right to civil action are established for violations.
New Jersey State Statute
opens new window New Jersey: NJS 10:5-43 et seq.
Privacy,
Research
A person may not (1) obtain genetic information from an individual or from an individual's DNA sample or (2) retain an individuals genetic information without prior informed consent with some exceptions, including for anonymous research where the identity of the subject will not be released. A DNA sample from an individual who is the subject of a research project must be destroyed promptly upon completion of the project or withdrawal of the individual from the project unless consent to retain the sample is provided. Additional provisions address retention and disclosure. The statutes set forth civil and criminal penalties for violations.
New Mexico State Statute
opens new window New Mexico: NMSA 24-21-1 et seq.
Employment Nondiscrimination,
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Other Lines of Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy,
Research
The statutes contain provisions on the acquisition, collection, retention, transmission or use of genetic information. Consent requirements provide an exemption (1) if DNA, genetic information or results of genetic analysis are not identified with the person or person's family members or (2) for the purpose of medical or scientific research and education (including retention of gene products, genetic information or genetic analysis if the identity of the person or person's family members is not disclosed.) Discrimination by an insurer against a person or his/her family member based on genetic analysis, genetic information or genetic propensity is prohibited. Life, disability income or long-term care insurance are exempt if use is based on sound actuarial principles or related to actual or reasonably anticipated experience. Upon request a persons genetic information or samples must be promptly destroyed with some exceptions, including if retention is authorized under a research protocol approved by an institution review board pursuant to federal law. It is unlawful for a person to use genetic information in employment or recruiting. A person whose rights under the provisions of the Genetic Information Privacy Act have been violated may bring a civil action for damages or other relief.
New York State Statute
opens new window New York: NY Public Health Code 2440 et seq.
Research The law safeguards the rights and welfare of individual human subjects in the conduct of human research projects and provides protections against the possible conduct of medical or psychological research without voluntary informed consent.
New York State Statute
opens new window New York: NYCL (CVR) 79-l
Privacy,
Research
Prior informed consent is required to perform a genetic test. Further disclosures require additional consent. For medical research purposes and with approval from an institutional review board and consent, a biological sample may be retained for longer than 60 days and be used for scientific research. Samples may be used for research conducted in accordance with applicable law and regulation and pursuant to a research protocol approved by an institutional review board, if individuals who provided the samples have given prior informed consent for the use of the sample for general research purposes without restrictions, and the samples have been permanently stripped of identifying information or coded to protect the individuals identity. Upon request samples that have not already been used for research must be destroyed. Family members of a research participant may not be contacted without the consent of the individual. Additional provisions address confidentiality, the incorporation of information into medical records, disclosure and penalties for violations.
Oklahoma State Statute
opens new window Oklahoma: OS 36-3614.1
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Research
Any individual, corporation, association, partnership, insurance support organization, fraternal benefit society, insurance producer, third-party administrator, self-insurer, or any other legal entity engaged in the business of insurance that issues accident and sickness insurance policies or administers a health insurance plan may not deny or condition the issuance or effectiveness of a policy on a pre-existing condition or genetic information. These entities also may not discriminate with respect to pricing a policy or certificate, including premiums, based on genetic information. A violation is an unfair and deceptive act or practice. An insurer also may not request or require a genetic test with an exception for research. An insurer may request a genetic test if the request is pursuant to research that complies with the Common Rule and other specified criteria are met.
Oklahoma State Statute
opens new window Oklahoma: OS 36-3614.4
Research The statutes related to research apply to genetic research studies approved by an institutional review board as defined in 21 CFR, 50 or conducted subject to the requirements of the federal common rule at 21 CFR, 50 and 56, and 45 CFR, 46. Research records are confidential and may not be disclosed to employers or health insurers without informed consent. The provision does not apply to an insurer or to an individual dealing with an insurer in the course of underwriting, conducting or administering life, disability income or long-term care insurance. Stored tissues, including blood, that arise from surgery, other diagnostic or therapeutic steps, or autopsy may be disclosed for genetic or other research studies with informed consent. Results of genetic research studies may be published if no individual subject is identified.
Oregon State Statute
opens new window Oregon: ORS 192.531 et seq.
Privacy,
Research
The genetic privacy statutes define the rights of individuals whose genetic information is collected, retained or disclosed and the rights of the individuals blood relatives; define the circumstances under which an individual may be subjected to genetic testing; define the circumstances under which an individuals genetic information may be collected, retained or disclosed; protect against discrimination by an insurer or employer based upon an individuals genetic characteristics; and define the circumstances under which a DNA sample or genetic information may be used for research.
Rhode Island State Statute
opens new window Rhode Island: RIGL 27-18-52
27-18-52.1
27-19-44
27-19-44.1
27-20-39
27-20-39.1
27-41-53
and 27-41-53.1
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy,
Research
Insurance administrators, health plans and providers of accident and sickness insurance, nonprofit hospital corporations, nonprofit medical service corporations, and HMOs are prohibited from releasing genetic information without prior written authorization. Individuals participating in research settings governed by the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Research Subjects are exempt. Tests conducted purely for research are excluded from the requirements set forth, as are tests for somatic (as opposed to heritable) mutations, and testing for forensic purposes. An individual or group health insurance contract, plan or policy (excluding disability income, long term care and insurance supplemental policies) may not use a genetic test or genetic information or request for genetic tests or genetic information or the results of a genetic test for specified purposes, including for underwriting. Provisions pertaining to the release the results of a genetic test or genetic information do not apply to releases in a format whereby individual identifiers are removed, encrypted, or encoded so that the identity of the individual is not disclosed. Authorization is required for each re-disclosure except for participating in research settings governed by the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Research Subjects.
Texas State Statute
opens new window Texas: TS (Insurance) Code 546.001 et seq.
Health Insurance Nondiscrimination,
Privacy,
Research
Individual and group health benefit plans that request an applicant for coverage to submit to a genetic test for a permissible purpose must notify the applicant that the test is required, disclose to the applicant the proposed use of the results, and obtain prior written informed consent. A health benefit plan issuer may not use genetic information or the refusal of an applicant to submit to a genetic test to reject, deny, limit, cancel, refuse to renew, increase the premiums for, or otherwise adversely affect eligibility for or coverage under the plan. Genetic material obtained from an individual for a genetic test must be destroyed promptly after the purpose for which it was obtained with some exceptions, including (1) authorized retention of the sample for medical treatment or scientific research or (2) if the sample was obtained for research that is cleared by an institutional review board, and retention of the sample is under a requirement the institutional review board imposes on a specific research project or authorized by the research participant with institutional review board approval under federal law. A health benefit plan issuer may redisclose genetic information without authorization for actuarial or research studies if the tested individual could not be identified in any actuarial or research report and any materials that identify a tested individual are returned or destroyed as soon as reasonably practicable.
Texas State Statute
opens new window Texas: TS (Occupations) Code 58.001 et seq.
Employment Nondiscrimination,
Privacy,
Research
The statutes restrict the use and disclosure of genetic tests and the use of family history by a licensing authority. A sample obtained from an individual for a genetic test must be destroyed promptly after the purpose for which the sample was obtained with some exceptions, including (1) authorized retention of the sample for medical treatment or scientific research or (2) if the sample was obtained for research that is cleared by an institutional review board, and retention of the sample is under a requirement the institutional review board imposes on a specific research project or authorized by the research participant with institutional review board approval under federal law. Genetic information may not be disclosed without written authorization with some exceptions, including (1) if the disclosure is for information from a research study in which the procedure for obtaining informed written consent and the use of the information is governed by national standards for protecting participants involved in research projects, including guidelines issued under 21 C.F.R. Part 50 and 45 C.F.R. Part 46 and (2) the information does not identify a specific individual.
Vermont State Statute
opens new window Vermont: VSA 18 9331 et seq.
Privacy,
Research
A person may not be required to undergo genetic testing with some exceptions. Genetic testing may not be performed on any individual or any bodily materials be released for purposes of genetic testing without prior written authorization and informed consent except for (1) medical research where the identity of the subject is unknown, (2) if the research is conducted with anonymized medical information, where individual identifiers are encrypted or encoded, and the identity of the individual is not disclosed, or (3) if the identity of the individual is known, where standards of protection are equal to those contained in regulations promulgated by the federal Office for Protection from Research Risk (OPRR).
Virginia State Statute
opens new window Virginia: Code of Va. 32.1-162.16.
Research Requires informed consent to conduct human research. Requires institutions or agencies conducting or proposing to conduct or authorize human research to establish a human research review committee.
Washington State Statute
opens new window Washington: RCW 70.02.010 et seq.
Privacy,
Research
A health care provider, an individual who assists a health care provider in the delivery of health care, or an agent and employee of a health care provider may not disclose health care information, including a patient's deoxyribonucleic acid and identified sequence of chemical base pairs, about a patient to any other person without the patient's written authorization. A health care provider may disclose health care information to researchers if the health care provider or health care facility obtains the informed consent for the use of the patient's health care information for research purposes.

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Last Reviewed: January 8, 2013