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Chief & Senior Investigator

Medical Genetics Branch


Human Development Section


Combined Pediatrics and Medical Genetics Residency Training Program


Abitur, Goethe-Gymnasium, Germany, 1972

M.D. Free University of Berlin School of Medicine, 1979


Dr. Max Muenke obtained his undergraduate and M.D. degree from the Free University School of Medicine in Berlin. He then pursued residency training in the Department of Pediatrics of the Christian-Albrecht University in Kiel in his native Germany. Dr. Muenke was awarded a three-year scholarship from the German Research Foundation to work with Dr. Uta Francke in the Human Genetics Department at Yale. Following this research fellowship, he completed training at the Children's Hospital in Philadelphia (CHOP) and the University of Pennsylvania (Penn) with Dr. Elaine Zackai in Clinical Genetics and research training as a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Associate with Dr. Robert Nussbaum. From 1990-97 he served on the faculty of the Departments of Pediatrics and Human Genetics at Penn where he was awarded tenure in 1996.

In 1997, he joined the intramural program of National Human Genome Research Institute at NIH as the Head of the Human Development Section, and since 2000 as Chief of the Medical Genetics Branch. Dr. Muenke has directed medical genetics training since 1993, first at CHOP/Penn and since 1997 at NIH. The focus of his research has been on the delineation and identification of the underlying causes of craniofacial anomalies in humans. His lab made seminal discoveries in linking Sonic Hedgehog signaling to normal and abnormal brain development in humans. His group identified several genes important in craniofacial disorders, including the most common, craniosynostosis syndrome, now called Muenke syndrome.

More recently, his lab has identified susceptibility loci for ADHD, with further research focused on predicting severity, treatment response and long-term outcome. Dr. Muenke is passionate about training the next generation of leaders in the field of genetics and genomics, and he finds the work with families affected by genetic / genomic disorders as one of the most rewarding aspects of his professional career.

Scientific Summary

For the past two decades, the Human Development Section (HDS) has focused on the delineation and identification of the underlying causes of craniofacial anomalies in humans. Dr. Muenke's interest in this work was sparked during his fellowship training by a clinical encounter with two newborns: one had an unusual skull shape and the other had a severe brain anomaly. These two patients initiated the work on craniosynostosis and holoprosencephaly (HPE). By collecting samples from large families with Pfeiffer syndrome (PS) for linkage and candidate gene studies, the Muenke lab was able to identify causative gain-of-function mutations in FGFR1 and FGFR2. Further studies of mutation-negative families that were originally considered to have PS led to the discovery of a defining mutation in FGFR3 in all affected patients. This condition, now termed Muenke syndrome, is the most common craniosynostosis syndrome. Detailed clinical analyses at the NIH Clinical Center showed that virtually all mutation carriers have sensorineural hearing loss, leading to new patient care standards. Current studies of Muenke syndrome involve 1) natural history studies with special emphasis on behavior and cognition, and 2) determining multifactorial influences of disease severity using a variety of techniques.

A major focus of the Muenke lab is on holoprosencephaly (HPE), which is the most common anomaly of the developing forebrain (1 in 250 during early embryogenesis; 1 in 10,000 at birth; and an estimated 1 in 100, 000 at one year of life). Dr. Muenke's group has collected samples from over 1,000 unrelated kindreds to date. His work in HPE emphasizes the understanding of normal and abnormal brain development through gene identification and functional studies of disease-associated alleles in cell-based assays and animal models. Since the first HPE gene found in the lab - Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) - a dozen additional HPE genes have been discovered (ZIC2, SIX3, TGIF, PTCH1, TDGF1, GLI2, FOXH1, DISP1, FGF8, CDON, GAS1, BOC). Dr. Muenke's group identified the involvement of abnormal sterol metabolism in HPE, as well as the relatively common etiology of submicroscopic copy number variations. This work on HPE stimulated gene identification in other early gastrulation midline defects such as heterotaxy (CFC1) and common types of cardiac anomalies (CFC1, FOXH1, NODAL,and GDF1). Current research goals include comprehensive targeted capture of both coding and non-coding conserved elements in key developmental pathways (e.g. Hedgehog and Nodal) using next-generation approaches. The lab has demonstrated that ultra-conserved NCE are targets for mutations in HPE (e.g. ZIC2 3'UTR) and has developed methods in the zebrafish to demonstrate enhancer activity. Finally, as a service to the community, Dr. Muenke's group organizes regular HPE conferences for families and health care professionals, runs a CLIA-certified diagnostic lab free of charge for HPE-associated gene testing, and is a worldwide HPE referral and consultation center.

Work in animal models from other labs demonstrated the importance of cholesterol modification for optimal SHH function. Dr. Muenke's work showed that cholesterol-lowering statin drugs taken in the first trimester are associated with specific brain and limb anomalies, in part influencing the Food and Drug Administration to disallow over-the-counter sale of statins. Further, in analyzing data from over 10,000 pregnant women, his group found that low maternal cholesterol is associated with prematurity and low birth weight. Recently, the observation by Dr. Muenke's group of the extremely high frequency of fatty liver in HPE gene mutation-positive individuals has led to collaborative mouse-based studies aimed to test the role of HPE-related genes in liver regeneration and idiopathic liver disease, as well as a new protocol designed to look for genetic contributions to idiopathic fatty liver in the general population.

Based on successes with syndrome delineation and gene identification in Mendelian disorders, the Muenke lab initiated a clinical, neuropsychological and molecular genetic study of the most common behavioral disorder in childhood, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Initial work emphasized detailed phenotypic and linkage studies in large families from a genetic isolate, which led to the identification of ADHD and comorbid disorder (e.g., substance use disorders) susceptibility loci. The Muenke lab found and replicated the association between ADHD, including treatment response, and LPHN3 variants. They then demonstrated that an interaction between LPHN3 and a region on chromosome 11 (NCAM1, TTC12, ANKK1, and DRD2) doubles the risk for ADHD and predicts severity and long-term outcome. The Muenke lab is now generating genotypes on samples already available in the lab (over 5,000 patients and controls to date), as well as on samples from a cohort of individuals who have been followed for over 16 years as a part of the NIH Multicenter Treatment Assessment study, in order to define a genetics-symptoms-function-treatment predictive framework as a step towards personalized medicine in ADHD.



Solomon, B.D., Mercier, S., Vélez, J.I., Pineda-Alvarez, D.E., Wyllie, A., Zhou, N., Dubourg, C., David, V., Odent, S., Roessler, E., Muenke, M.: Analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations in human holoprosencephaly. Am. J. Med. Genet. Part C: Semin. Med. Genet, 154C:133-141. 2010. [PubMed]

Solomon, B.D., Lacbawan, F., Mercier, S., Clegg, N.J., Delgado, M.R., DuBourg, C., David, V., Rosenbaum, K., Olney, A.H., Wehner, L.-E., Hehr, U., Bale, S., Paulussen, A., Smeets H.J., Hardisty, E., Tylki-Szymanka, A., Pronicka, E., Clemens, M., McPherson, E., Hennekam, R.C.M., Hahn, J., Stashinko, E., Levey, E., Wieczorek, D., Majewski, F., Roeder, E., Imaizumi, K., Schell-Apacik, C., Booth, C., Keaton, A., Balog, J.Z., Hadley, D., Zhou, N., Long., B., Pineda-Alvarez, D.E., Odent, S., Roessler, E., Muenke, M.: Mutations in ZIC2in human holoprosencephaly: description of a novel ZIC2-specific phenotype and comprehensive analysis of 157 individuals. J. Med. Genet, 47:513-524. 2010. [PubMed]

Arauz, R.F., Solomon, B.D., Pineda-Alvarez, D.E., Gropman, A.L., Parsons, J.A., Roessler, E., Muenke, M.: A hypomorphic allele in the FGF8 gene contributes to holoprosencephaly and is allelic to gonadotropin releasing hormone deficiency in humans. Molec. Syndrom, 1:59-66. 2010. [PubMed]

Arcos-Burgos, M., Jain, M., Acosta, M.T., Shively, S., Stanescu, H., Wallis, D., Domené, S., Vélez, J.I., Karkera, J.D., Balog, J., Berg, K., Kleta, R., Gahl, W.A., Roessler, E., Long, R., Lie, J., Pineda, D., Londoño, A.C., Palacio J.D., Arbelaez, A., Lopera, F., Elia, J., Hakonarson, H., Johansson, S., Knappskog, P.M., Haavik, J., Ribases, M., Cormand, B., Bayes, M., Casas, M., Ramos, T., Hervas, A., Maher, B.S., Seitz, C., Freitag, C.M., Palmason H., Meyer, J., Romanos, M., Renner, T., Jacob, C., Lesch, K.-P., Farone, S.V., Swanson, J., Vortmeyer A., Bailey-Wilson, J., Castellanos, F.X., Muenke, M.: A common variant of the lathrophilin 3 gene confers susceptibility to ADHD and predicts effectiveness of stimulant medication. Mol. Psychiatr, 15:1053-1066. 2010. [PubMed]

Hehr, U., Pineda-Alvarez, D.E., Uyanik, G., Hu, P., Zhou, N., Hehr, A., Schell-Apacik, C., Altus, C., Daumer-Haas, C., Meiner, A., Steuernagel, P., Roessler, E., Winkler J., Muenke, M. Heterozygous mutations in SIX3 and SHH are associated with schizencephaly and further expand the holoprosencephaly spectrum. Hum. Genet, 127:555-561. 2010. [PubMed]

Keaton, AA., Solomon, B.D., Kauvar, E.F., El-Jaick, K.B., Gropman, A.L., Zafer, Y., Meck, J.M., Bale, S.J., Grange, D.K., Haddad, B.R., Gowans, G.C., Clegg, N.J., Delgado, M.R., Hahn, J.S., Pineda-Alvarez, D.E., Lacbawan, F., Vélez, J.I., Roessler, E., Muenke, M.: TGIF mutations in human holoprosencephaly: correlation between genotype and phenotype. Mol. Syndromol, 1:211-222. 2010. [PubMed]

Bae, GU., Domené, S., Roessler, E., Schachter, K., Kang, J.-S., Muenke, M., Krauss, RS. Mutations in CDON, encoding a hedgehog receptor, result in holoprosencephaly and defective interactions with other hedgehog receptors. Am. J. Hum. Genet, 89:231-240. 2011. [PubMed]

Jain, M., Vélez, J.I., Acosta, M.T., Balog, J., Roessler, E., Palacio L.G., Pineda, D., Londoño, A.C., Palacio, J.D., Arbelaez, A., Lopera, F., Elia, J., Hakonarson, H., Seitz, C., Freitag, C.M., Palmason H., Meyer, J., Romanos, M., Walitza S., Hemminger, U., Warnke, A., Romanos, J., Renner, T., Jacob, C., Lesch, K.-P., Swanson, J., Castellanos, F.X., Bailey-Wilson, J., Arcos-Burgos, M., Muenke, M.: A cooperative interaction between LPHN3 and 11q doubles the risk for ADHD. Mol. Psychiatr, 17:741-747. 2012. [PubMed]

Agochukwu, N.B., Solomon, B.D., Doherty, E.S., Muenke, M.: The palatal and oral manifestations of Muenke syndrome (FGFR3-related craniosynostosis). J. Craniofac. Surg, 23:664-668. 2012. [PubMed]

Roessler, E., Vélez J.I., Zhou, N., Muenke, M. Utilizing prospective sequence analysis of SHH, ZIC2, SIX3, and TGIF in holoprosencephaly probands to describe gene x gene interaction. Mol. Genet. Metab, 105:658-664. 2012. [PubMed]

Roessler, E., Hu, P., Hong, S.-K., Srivastava, K., Carrington, B., Sood, R., Petrykowska, H., Elnitski, L., Ribeiro, L.A., Richieri-Costa, A., Feldman, B., Odenwald, W.F., Muenke, M. Unique alterations of an ultraconserved non-coding element in the 3'UTR of ZIC2 in holoprosencephaly. PLoS One, 7(7):e39026. 2012. [PubMed]

Solomon, B.D., Bear, K.A., Wyllie, A., Keaton, A.A., Dubourg, C., David, V., Mercier, S., Odent, S., Hehr, U., Paulussen, A., Clegg, N.J., Delgado, M.R., Bale, S.J., Lacbawan, F., Ardinger, H., Aylsworth, A., Bhengu, M.L., Braddock, S., Braddoch, S., Brookhyser, K., Burton, B., Gaspar, H., Grix, A., Horovitz, D., Kanetzke, D., Kayserili, H., Lev, D., Nikkel, S.M., Norton, M., Roberts, R., Saal, H., Schaefer, G.B., Schneider, A., Smith E.K., Sowry, E., Spence, M.A., Shalev, S., Steiner, C.E., Balog, J.Z., Hadley, D.W., Zhou, N., Pineda-Alvarez, D.E., Roessler, E., Muenke, M. Genotypic and phenotypic analysis of 396 individuals with mutations in Sonic Hedgehog. J. Med. Genet, 49:473-479. 2012. [PubMed]

Arcos-Burgos, M., Londono, A.C., Pineda, D.A., Lopera, F., Palacio, J,D., Arbelaez, A., Acosta, M.T., Vélez, J.I., Castellanos, F.X., Muenke, M. Analysis of brain metabolism by proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder suggests a generalized differential ontogenic pattern from controls. Atten. Defic. Hyperact. Disord, 4:205-212. 2012. [PubMed]

Agochukwu, N.B., Solomon, B.D., Muenke, M. Epilepsy in Muenke syndrome (FGFR3 related craniosynostosis). Pediatr. Neurol, 47:355-361. 2012. [PubMed]

Agochukwu, N.B., Solomon, B.D., Benson, L.J., Muenke, M. Talocalcaneal coalition in Muenke syndrome: report of a case, review of the literature in FGFR-related craniosynostosis, and consideration of mechanism. Am.J. Med. Genet, 161:453-460. 2013. [PubMed]

Bear, K.A., Solomon, B.D., Antonini, S., Arnold, I.J.P., França, M.M., Gerkes, E.H., Grange, D.K., Hadley, D.K., Jääskeläinen, J., Paulo, S.S., Rump, P., Stratakis, C.A., Thompson, E.M., Willis, M., Winder, T., Jorge, A.A.L., Roessler, E., Muenke, M. Pathogenic mutations in GLI2 cause a specific phenotype that is distinct from holoprosencephaly. J. Med. Genet. [In Press]

Book Chapters

Muenke, M., Solomon, B.D., Odent, S. (eds): Holoprosencephaly. Am. J. Med. Genet. Part C: Semin. Med. Genet, Vol. 154C, 2010.

Muenke, M., Kress, W., Collmann. H., Solomon, B.D. (eds.): Monographs in Human Genetics. Volume 19: Craniosynostoses: Molecular Genetics, Principles of Diagnosis and Treatment. Karger Publishing, Basel, Switzerland, Vol. 19:1-244. 2011.

Muenke, M., Volkow, N.D. (eds.): Genetics of Substance Use Disorders and Addiction. Hum. Genet, Vol. 131. 2012.


Solomon, B.D., Gropman, A.S., Muenke, M.: Holoprosencephaly Overview. In: Pagon RA, Bird TD, Dolan CR, Stephens K, Adam MP, editors. GeneReviews tm [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle. 2010. [PubMed


Roessler, E., Muenke, M.: The molecular genetics of holoprosencephaly. Am. J. Med. Genet. Part C: Semin. Med. Genet, 154C:52-61. 2010. [PubMed]

Gropman, A.S., Muenke, M.: Holoprosencephaly. Chapter 30 in: Cassidy, S.B., Allanson, J.E. (eds.) "Management of Genetic Syndromes". Third Edition. Wiley-Blackwell, Inc. pp.441-459. 2010. [PubMed]

Arcos-Burgos, M., Muenke, M. Toward a better understanding of ADHD: LPHN3 gene variants and the susceptibility to develop ADHD. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders, 2:139-147. 2010. [PubMed]

Kauvar, E.F., Muenke, M. Holoprosencephaly: recommendations for diagnosis and management. Curr. Opin. Pediatr, 22:687-695. 2010. [PubMed]

Agochukwu, N., Doherty, E.S., Muenke, M. Muenke syndrome. In: Pagon RA, Bird TD, Dolan CR, Stephens K, Adam MP, editors. GeneReviewstm (Internet) Seattle, Wash. University of Washington, Seattle. 2010. [PubMed]

Solomon, B.D., Muenke, M.: Muenke syndrome. Chapter 8 in: Muenke, M., Kress, W., Collman, H., Solomon, B.D. (eds.): Monographs in Human Genetics: Craniosynostoses: Molecular Genetics, Principles of Diagnosis and Treatment, 19:89-97. 2011.

Arcos-Burgos, M., Vélez, J.I, Solomon, B.D., Muenke, M.: A common genetic network underlies disruptive or externalizing disorders (ADHD, CD, ODD) and substance use disorders. Hum. Genet, 131:917-930. 2012. [PubMed]

Nah, H.-D., Koyama, E., Agochukwu, N.B., Bartlett, S.P., Muenke, M. Phenotype profile of a genetic mouse model for Muenke syndrome. Childs. Nerv. Syst, 28:1483-1493. 2012. [PubMed]

Volkow, N.D., Muenke, M.: The genetics of addiction. Hum. Genet, 131:773-777. 2012. [PubMed]

Muenke, M.: Individualized genomics and the future of translational medicine. Mol. Genet. & Genomic Med, 1:1-3. 2013. [PubMed]

Human Development Section Staff

Generic Profile Photo
Yonit A. Addissie, B.A.
  • Postbaccalaureate Fellow
  • Human Development Section
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Maria T. Acosta, M.D.
  • Medical Director, ADHD Clinic
  • Human Development Section
Sungkook Hong, Ph.D.
Sungkook Hong, Ph.D.
  • Staff Scientist
  • Human Development Section
Ping Hu, M.S.
Ping Hu, M.S.
  • Staff Scientist
  • Human Development Section
Paul S. Kruszka
Paul S. Kruszka
  • Clinical Fellow
  • Human Development Section
Ariel F. Martinez
Ariel F. Martinez
  • Biologist
  • Human Development Section
Erich Roessler, M.D., Ph.D.
Erich Roessler, M.D., Ph.D.
  • Associate Investigator
  • Medical Genetics Branch

Last updated: May 19, 2016