A listing of news releases from other National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and centers, academic and non-profit institutions, and scientists or scientific societies related to NHGRI-funded work.
NHGRI-Related News Archive
- April 11, 2014: Yeast provides genetic clues on drug response
From the University of British Columbia: Researchers at the University of British Columbia exposed 6,000 strains of yeast to 3,000 drugs. Yeast strains were modified so their response could be measured. Researchers found that the yeast cells have about 50 main ways in which they react to any drug.These 50 major response types, known as gene signatures, are like fingerprints that identify all genes and their relevance to a specific drug treatment. This relatively small number of gene signatures means that it might be possible to eventually use a person's genome to predict their drug response. It could also make it easier to identify more effective therapies. The study was published in the April 10 issue of Science. The study was supported in part by a grant from the National Human Genome Research Institute.
- April 7, 2014: Amino acid fingerprints revealed in new study
From Arizona State University: Stuart Lindsay and his colleagues at Arizona State University's Biodesign Institute have taken a major step in demonstrating the accurate identification of amino acids, by briefly pinning each in a narrow junction between a pair of flanking electrodes and measuring a characteristic chain of current spikes passing through successive amino acid molecules. The new work advances the prospect of clinical protein sequencing and the discovery of new biomarkers-early warning beacons signaling disease. Further, protein sequencing may radically transform patient treatment, enabling precise monitoring of disease response to therapeutics, at the molecular level. The group's research results are reported in the advanced online edition of the journal Nature Nanotech. The current research received funding from the National Institute of Health's National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI).
- March 19, 2014: Scientists Describe Gut Bacteria that Cause Sepsis in Preterm Infants
From the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Researchers studying intestinal bacteria in newborns have characterized the gut bacteria of premature infants who go on to develop sepsis, a serious and potentially life-threatening condition caused by bacteria in the bloodstream. Their findings suggest new strategies for the early detection and prevention of severe bloodstream infections. The research was funded by several components of the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and the NIH Common Fund-and other organizations. The research is published in the March 19 issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases.
- March 18, 2014: Study of complete RNA collection of fruit fly uncovers unprecedented complexity
From Indiana University: Scientists from Indiana University are part of a consortium that has described the transcriptome of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster in unprecedented detail, identifying thousands of new genes, transcripts and proteins. In the new work, published Sunday, March 16, in the journal Nature, scientists studied the transcriptome - the complete collection of RNAs produced by a genome - at different stages of development, in diverse tissues, in cells growing in culture, and in flies stressed by environmental contaminants. To do so, they used contemporary sequencing technology to sequence all of the expressed RNAs in greater detail than ever before possible. The 41 co-authors of the study were from 11 universities and institutes that are members of the National Human Genome Research Institute's Model Organism Encyclopedia of DNA Elements project, or modENCODE.
- March 16, 2014: Vast Gene-Expression Map Yields Neurological and Environmental Stress Insights
From Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: A consortium led by scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has conducted the largest survey yet of how information encoded in an animal genome is processed in different organs, stages of development, and environmental conditions. Their findings paint a new picture of how genes function in the nervous system and in response to environmental stress.They report their research this week in the Advance Online Publication of the journal Nature. The research was funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute modENCODE Project.
- March 14, 2014: Taking immune cells for a test drive
From the Broad Institute: A team of Broad scientists, collaborating with colleagues at Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) and Harvard Medical School (HMS), recently demonstrated how combining sophisticated biological experimentation on human white blood cells with advanced computational methods can help explain the functional impact of human genetic variation on immune disease. The new work appeared in the March 7 issue of Science. The study incorporates data from 1000 Genomes and ENCODE and was supported in part by CEGS, PECASE and institutional training grants from NHGRI.
- March 13, 2014: Detecting, Testing, Treating Rare Diseases: Technology Delivers New Era of Personalization
From Cedars-Sinai: A team of researchers from the National Institutes of Health, Emory University and Cedars-Sinai - specialists in identifying and treating very rare diseases - used three innovative tools to detect a previously unknown gene mutation, test potential therapies in the lab, and initiate personalized drug treatment for a boy with a lifelong history of uncontrollable seizures that caused significant impact on his cognitive and social development. The study, published March 3 in the Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology, has sixteen contributing authors, including William A. Gahl, M.D., Ph.D., clinical director, NHGRI.
- March 10, 2014: New genetic cause of children's liver disease discovered
From Kings College London: The discovery of a 'faulty gene' in children with liver disease could pave the way for new treatments for children with a range of serious and life-threatening liver conditions. The findings - published on March 9th in Nature Genetics - follow two years of research by doctors and scientists at King's College London and King's College Hospital, both part of King's Health Partners AHSC. An NHGRI grant helped fund the research.
- March 3, 2014: Media Availability: NIH Team Identifies New Genetic Syndrome
From the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Researchers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have identified a new genetic syndrome characterized by a constellation of health problems, including severe allergy, immune deficiency, autoimmunity and motor and neurocognitive impairment. The researchers, led by scientists at the NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), observed that the syndrome's diverse symptoms are the result of mutations in a single gene associated with sugar metabolism. They plan to evaluate certain types of sugars as a potential treatment for people with this rare genetic condition in an upcoming clinical trial. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, was conducted by scientists from NIAID, the National Human Genome Research Institute and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, all components of NIH, and collaborators.
- March 3, 2014: Media Availability: Study of Antibody Evolution Charts Course toward HIV Vaccine
From the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: In an advance for HIV vaccine research, a scientific team has discovered how the immune system makes a powerful antibody that blocks HIV infection of cells by targeting a site on the virus called V1V2. Many researchers believe that if a vaccine could elicit potent antibodies to a specific conserved site in the V1V2 region, one of a handful of sites that remains constant on the fast-mutating virus, then the vaccine could protect people from HIV infection. Analyses of the results of a clinical trial of the only experimental HIV vaccine to date to have modest success in people suggest that antibodies to sites within V1V2 were protective. The new findings point the way toward a potentially more effective vaccine that would generate V1V2-directed HIV neutralizing antibodies. The research, published in the journal Nature, is from a collaboration of authors, including Jim Mullikin, director of the NIH Intramural Sequencing Center, administered by NHGRI.
- March 3, 2014: Study pinpoints protective mutations for type 2 diabetes
From the Broad Institute: An international team led by researchers at the Broad Institute and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) has identified mutations in a gene that can reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, even in people who have risk factors such as obesity and old age. The results focus the search for developing novel therapeutic strategies for type 2 diabetes; if a drug can be developed that mimics the protective effect of these mutations, it could open up new ways of preventing this devastating disease. NHGRI helped fund the research.
- February 28, 2014: First of its kind web portal to bolster research and treatment for rare diseases
From Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario: A new web portal - PhenomeCentral - is being launched today as a resource for clinicians and scientists worldwide to learn about the existence of cases similar to their own and to eventually improve the understanding of disorder symptoms and underlying causes. The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program, administered by the National Human Genome Research Institute is a founding partner in the PhenomeCentral consortium.
- February 28, 2014: New method IDs working copies of genes in human cells; could help diagnose sick tissues early
From Harvard Medical School: In biology, as in real estate, location matters. Working copies of active genes - called messenger RNAs or mRNAs - are positioned strategically throughout living tissues, and their location often helps regulate how cells and tissues grow and develop. Now a team at the Wyss Institute of Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University and Harvard Medical School, in collaboration with the Allen Institute for Brain Science, has developed a new method that allows scientists to pinpoint thousands of mRNAs and other types of RNAs at once in intact cells - all while determining the sequence of letters, or bases, that identify them and reveal what they do. The project was funded by NHGRI's Centers of Excellence in Genomic Science.
- February 10, 2014: Shortening guide RNA markedly improves specificity of CRISPR-Cas nucleases
From Massachusetts General Hospital: A simple adjustment to a powerful gene-editing tool may be able to improve its specificity. In a report receiving advance online publication in Nature Biotechnology, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) investigators describe how adjusting the length of the the guide RNA (gRNA) component of the synthetic enzymes called CRISPR-Cas RNA-guided nucleases (RGNs) can substantially reduce the occurrence of DNA mutations at sites other than the intended target, a limitation the team had previously described just last year. NHGRI helped fund the study.
- January 30, 2014: Study uncovers molecular keys to invasive bladder cancer, points to potential drug targets - including some found in other cancers
From MD Anderson Cancer Center: The once sketchy landscape of the molecular defects behind bladder cancer now resembles a road map to new, targeted treatments thanks to the unified efforts of scientists and physicians at 40 institutions. Deep molecular analysis of 131 muscle-invasive bladder cancer tumors found recurring defects in 32 genes for the cancer that currently has no targeted therapies. Findings by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network are published in the journal Nature. The TCGA is a joint project of the National Cancer Institute and the National Human Genome Research Institute of the National Institutes of Health.
- January 24, 2014: Study expands the cancer genomics universe
From The Broad Institute: A landmark study across many cancer types reveals that the universe of cancer mutations is much bigger than previously thought. By analyzing the genomes of thousands of patients' tumors, a Broad Institute-led research team has discovered many new cancer genes - expanding the list of known genes tied to these cancers by 25 percent. Moreover, the study shows that many key cancer genes still remain to be discovered. The team's work, which lays a critical foundation for future cancer drug development, also shows that creating a comprehensive catalog of cancer genes for scores of cancer types is feasible with as few as 100,000 patient samples. Funding for these studies was provided in part by the National Human Genome Research Institute.
- January 22, 2014: New studies show that many rare mutations contribute to schizophrenia risk
From The Broad Institute: Researchers from the Broad Institute and several partnering institutions have taken a closer look at the human genome to learn more about the genetic underpinnings of schizophrenia. In two studies published this week in Nature, scientists analyzed the exomes, or protein-coding regions, of people with schizophrenia and their healthy counterparts, pinpointing the sites of mutations and identifying patterns that reveal clues about the biology underlying the disorder. Funding for these studies was provided in part by the National Human Genome Research Institute.
- January 22, 2014: NIH and Appistry Partner to Implement Genetic Analysis Pipeline for Undiagnosed Diseases Program
From Appistry: Appistry, Inc., a leading provider of high-performance computing and analytics solutions for next-generation medicine, is partnering with the Undiagnosed Diseases Program (UDP) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to implement a unique genetic-analysis pipeline for patient diagnosis. Assembled by the NIH and brought into production by Appistry, the pipeline considers family genetics to narrow the search for the genetic changes that underlie many rare and undiagnosed diseases. NHGRI helped establish the Undiagnosed Diseases Program.
- January 22, 2014: Study shows 1 in 5 women with ovarian cancer has inherited predisposition
From Washington University in St. Louis: A new study conservatively estimates that one in five women with ovarian cancer has inherited genetic mutations that increase the risk of the disease, according to research at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. Most women in the study would have been unaware of a genetic predisposition to ovarian cancer because they didn't have strong family histories that suggested it.The research, published Jan. 22 in Nature Communications, is the first large-scale analysis of the combined contributions of inherited and acquired mutations in a major cancer type. NHGRI helped fund the study.
- January 19, 2014: Decoded: DNA of blood-sucking worm that infects world's poor
From Washington University in St. Louis: Going barefoot in parts of Africa, Asia and South America contributes to hookworm infections, which afflict an estimated 700 million of the world's poor. The parasitic worm lives in the soil and enters the body through the feet. By feeding on victims' blood, the worms cause anemia and, in children, stunted growth and learning problems. Now, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have decoded the genome of the hookworm, Necator americanus, finding clues to how it infects and survives in humans and to aid in development of new therapies to combat hookworm disease. The research is published Jan. 19 in Nature Genetics. The genome sequencing and annotation work was funded by NHGRI.
- January 9, 2014: Elephant shark genome decoded
From Washington University in St. Louis: An international team of researchers has sequenced the genome of the elephant shark, a curious-looking fish with a snout that resembles the end of an elephant's trunk. The elephant shark and its cousins the sharks, rays, skates and chimaeras are the world's oldest-living jawed vertebrates. But their skeletons are made of cartilage rather than bone, making this group of vertebrates an oddity on the evolutionary tree.
Last Updated: April 11, 2014