Nature, June 13, 2007
Major Findings from The ENCODE Pilot Project
The modENCODE Project
On Other Sites: The ENCODE (ENCylopedia Of DNA Elements) Project.
Science, October 22, 2004
Nature ENCODE explorer
Sept. 5, 2012
ENCODE Web Focus
Related articles on ENCODE from Nature
Special Issue on ENCODE from Genome Research
Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO)
European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI)
The ENCODE Project: ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements
Follow the ENCODE Project on:
The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) launched a public research consortium named ENCODE, the Encyclopedia Of DNA Elements, in September 2003, to carry out a project to identify all functional elements in the human genome sequence. The project started with two components - a pilot phase and a technology development phase.
The pilot phase tested and compared existing methods to rigorously analyze a defined portion of the human genome sequence (See: ENCODE Pilot Project). The conclusions from this pilot project were published in June 2007 in Nature and Genome Research [genome.org]. The findings highlighted the success of the project to identify and characterize functional elements in the human genome. The technology development phase also has been a success with the promotion of several new technologies to generate high throughput data on functional elements.
With the success of the initial phases of the ENCODE Project, NHGRI funded new awards in September 2007 to scale the ENCODE Project to a production phase on the entire genome along with additional pilot-scale studies. Like the pilot project, the ENCODE production effort is organized as an open consortium and includes investigators with diverse backgrounds and expertise in the production and analysis of data (See: ENCODE Participants and Projects). This production phase also includes a Data Coordination Center [genome.ucsc.edu] to track, store and display ENCODE data along with a Data Analysis Center to assist in integrated analyses of the data. All data generated by ENCODE participants will be rapidly released into public databases (See: Accessing ENCODE Data) and available through the project's Data Coordination Center.
Meetings and Workshops
- ENCODE 2015: Research Applications and Users Meeting
June 29 - July 1, 2015
- From Genome Function to Biomedical Insight: ENCODE and Beyond
March 10-11, 2015
- ENCODE Pilot Project Launch Meeting
March 7, 2003
- Workshop on the Comprehensive Extraction of Biological Information from Genomic Sequence
July 23 - 24, 2002
ENCODE Publications, Features and Press Releases
- Defining functional DNA elements in the Human Genome
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, April 21, 2014
- Nature ENCODE explorer
A series of coordinated scientific reports published in the Nature, Sept. 5, 2012 online issue
- NHGRI to host symposium on model organism Encyclopedia of DNA Elements project
June 20-21, 2012
- A User's Guide to the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE)
PLoS Biology, April 19, 2011
- Identification and analysis of functional elements in 1% of the human genome by the ENCODE pilot project
Nature, June 13, 2007
- ENCODE Web Focus
Related articles on ENCODE from Nature, June 2007
- Special Issue on ENCODE from Genome Research
- The ENCODE (ENCylopedia Of DNA Elements) Project. [sciencemag.org] (Full Text)
Science, Vol. 306, Issue 5696, 636-640, 22 October 2004.
- ENCODE RFAs Expand Effort to Understand the Genome
October 5, 2011
- Funding Now Available for Technology Development to Catalog and Analyze Function of Genomes
May 25, 2011
- New user's guide and tutorial helps disease researchers interpret human genome
April 19, 2011
- NIH ENCODE grants advance effort to survey entire human instruction book September 24, 2012
- ENCODE data describes function of human genome
September 5, 2012
- NHGRI to develop revolutionary technologies for exploring genome function
April 25, 2012
- Researchers Expand Efforts to Explore Functional Landscape of the Human Genome
October 9, 2007
- New Findings Challenge Established Views on Human Genome
June 13, 2007
- ENCODE Consortium Publishes Scientific Strategy
October 21, 2004
- Beyond Genes: Scientists Venture Deeper Into the Human Genome: ENCODE Project Seeks to Identify All Functional Elements in Human DNA
October 9, 2003
- Launch of Pilot Project to Identify All Functional Elements in Human DNA
March 4, 2003
ENCODE Consortium Membership
The ENCODE Consortium is composed primarily of scientists who were funded under RFAs released by NHGRI. Other participants have been identified and brought into the Consortium or Analysis Working Group (which leads the integrative analysis of ENCODE data) as appropriate. The Consortium and Analysis Working Group are open to any investigator willing to abide by the criteria for participation established for the ENCODE Project by NHGRI. The ENCODE External Consultants Panel oversees the activities of the Consortium and provides advice and feedback on the Consortium's goals, progress and membership.
Those interested in applying for membership to the ENCODE Consortium or to the ENCODE Analysis Working Group should review the criteria for participation and contact Elise Feingold, Ph.D., or Peter Good, Ph.D. (See: Program Staff).
- ENCODE Participants and Projects
- ENCODE Consortium Criteria for Participation
- ENCODE Analysis Working Group Criteria for Participation
- ENCODE External Consultants Panel
ENCODE Data Release Policy
NHGRI has designated the ENCODE Project as a community resource project to accelerate access to and use of the data by the entire scientific community. Accordingly, the data release policy is based on the principle of rapid data release to the scientific community.
- Current ENCODE Consortium Data Release Policy (2014-present)
- ENCODE-modENCODE Consortia Data Release Policy (2008-2014)
- ENCODE Pilot Project Data Release Policy (2003-2007)
- Ft. Lauderdale Agreement on Sharing Data from Large-scale Biological Research Projects: A System of Tripartite Responsibility
Accessing ENCODE Data
The data produced by ENCODE Consortium members are deposited to public databases and are available for all to use without restriction. Data linked to the genomic sequence is stored and visualized on the University of California, Santa Cruz browser at www.encodeproject.org. Other, non-sequence based data, like that from microarray studies, are available on public databases such as the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] and ArrayExpress [ebi.ac.uk]. The NHGRI Division of Intramural Research will be developing a "portal" that will function as a single point of entry from which users can search and retrieve data from the ENCODE Project. Data users should abide by the ENCODE Data Release Policy when accessing data produced by ENCODE Consortium members.
A variety of tutorials are available on accessing and using ENCODE human and mouse data for studies on basic biology and human disease.
ENCODE Common Cell Types
Common cell types have been identified by the Consortium to aid in the integration and comparison of data produced by ENCODE participants using different technologies and platforms.
ENCODE Project Requests For Application (RFAs)
Current ENCODE RFAs
- No current ENCODE RFAs at this time.
- NOT-HG-15-034 [grants.nih.gov]: Notice of Intent to Publish a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Functional Element Mapping Centers (UM1)
- NOT-HG-15-035 [grants.nih.gov]: Notice of Intent to Publish a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Functional Element Characterization Centers (UM1)
- NOT-HG-15-036 [grants.nih.gov]: Notice of Intent to Publish a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Computational Analysis Research Projects (U01)
- NOT-HG-15-037 [grants.nih.gov]: Notice of Intent to Publish a Funding Opportunity Announcement for ENCODE Data Coordination and Analysis Center (U24)
Past ENCODE RFAs
The pilot and technology development phases of the ENCODE project were initiated simultaneously in 2003 when NHGRI released Requests For Application (RFAs) for each of these phases. The first RFA for the pilot phase, RFA HG-03-003, entitled Determination of all functional elements in human DNA, solicited applications from those interested in participating in a research network to conduct a pilot project to test and compare existing methods for identifying all of the functional elements in a limited (~1%) region of the human genome. The second RFA, RFA HG-03-004, entitled Technologies to find functional elements in DNA, solicited applications to develop new and improved technologies for the efficient, comprehensive, high-throughput identification and verification of all types of sequence-based functional elements, particularly those other than coding sequences, for which adequate methods do not currently exist.
NHGRI re-released the technology development RFA in 2004 and 2006. RFA HG-04-001, issued in 2004, solicited additional applications with an added emphasis on high-risk, high-payoff projects and on technologies that might be applied to model organism genomes. RFAs HG-07-028 and HG-07-029, issued in 2006, had an added emphasis on methods to identify functional elements in repetitive sequences and on methods than can be used to validate the identity of functional elements using methods independent of the primary mode of detection.
As the initial phase of the ENCODE Project will be completed in September 2007, NHGRI issued RFAs in November 2006 to solicit application for research projects to continue the ENCODE-based analysis of the human genome at both pilot and whole-genome scales. RFA HG-07-030, entitled Creating the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) in the Human Genome (U01 and U54), solicited applications for research projects to identify functional elements in the entire human genome sequence (for whole-genome scale projects) or in the 1 percent of the genome targeted during the ENCODE pilot phase (for pilot-scale projects). RFA HG-07-031, entitled A Data Coordination Center for the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project (U41) solicited applications to develop, house, and maintain databases to track, store, and provide access to the different types of data generated as part of the ENCODE Project.
- NOT-HG-12-002 [grants.nih.gov]: Notice of Change in the Receipt Date: RFA-HG-11-024, Expanding the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) in the Human and Model Organisms (U54) and RFA-HG-11-025, Computational Analysis of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Data (U01) (Expired)
- RFA-HG-11-024 [grants.nih.gov]: Expanding the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) in the Human and Model Organisms (U54) (Expired)
- RFA-HG-11-025 [grants.nih.gov]: Computational Analysis of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Data (U01) (Expired)
- RFA-HG-11-026 [grants.nih.gov]: Data Analysis and Coordination Center for the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) (U41)(Expired)
- RFA-HG-11-013 [grants.nih.gov]: Technology Development for High-Throughput Functional Genomics (R01) (Expired)
- RFA-HG-11-014 [grants.nih.gov]: Technology Development for High-Throughput Functional Genomics (R21) (Expired)
- RFA-HG-11-015 [grants.nih.gov]: Technology Development for High-Throughput Functional Genomics (R43/44) (Expired)
- RFA-HG-07-030 [grants.nih.gov]: Creating the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) in the Human Genome (U01 and U54) (Expired)
NOT-07-007: Clarification and Additional Information to HG-07-030 and HG-07-031
Slides from Applicant Information Meeting - HG-07-030
- RFA-HG-07-031 [grants.nih.gov]: A Data Coordination Center for the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project (U41) (Expired)
NOT-07-007: Clarification and Additional Information to HG-07-030 and HG-07-031
Slides from Applicant Information Meeting - HG-07-031
- RFA-HG-07-010: [grants1.nih.gov] A Data Analysis Center for the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project (U01) (Expired)
- RFA HG-03-003 [grants.nih.gov]: Determination of All Functional Elements in Human DNA (Expired)
- RFA HG-03-004 [grants.nih.gov]: Technologies to Find Functional Elements in Genomic DNA (Expired)
- RFA-HG-04-001 [grants1.nih.gov]: Technologies to Find Functional Elements in Genomic DNA. (Expired)
- RFA-HG-07-028 [grants.nih.gov]: Technology Development for the Comprehensive Determination of Functional Elements in Eukaryotic Genomes (R21) (Expired)
- RFA HG-07-029 [grants.nih.gov]: Technology Development for the Comprehensive Determination of Functional Elements in Eukaryotic Genomes (R01) (Expired)
ENCODE Program Staff
National Human Genome Research Institute
National Institutes of Health
5635 Fishers Lane
Suite 4076, MSC 9305
Bethesda, MD 20892-9305
Last Updated: October 27, 2015