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Abbreviations for A Catalog of Published Genome-Wide Association Studies

Alphabetical by Abbreviation

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Special Characters

?: A risk allele not reported
5-HIAA: 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid


AA: African-American
AAM-BR: Age at menarche and buckling ratio
AAM-CT: Age at menarche and cortical thickness
AAM-W: Age at menarche and periosteal diameter
AAT: alanine aminotransferase
AAC: abdominal aortic calcium
A. action: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans
Ab: Amyloid-beta
ABI: ankle brachial index
ACE: Angiotensin-converting enzyme
ACPA: antibodies to citrullinated peptide antigens
ACVn: normalised agkistrodon contortrix venom ratio
AD: Alzheimer's Disease
ADM: Adrenomedullin
AF: atrial fibrillation
AFBV: Frontal Brain volume
AFP: ? fetoprotein
AFVB: multivariable-adjusted frontal brain volume
AIMS: Abnormal Involuntary Movements Scale
Ala: Alaine
ALB: albumin
ALB/GLB: serum albumin:globulin ratio
ALL: all ancestries
ALLV: adjusted log lateral ventricular volume
ALP: alkaline phosphatase
Alpha-TOH: alpha-tocopherol
ALT: alanine aminotransferase
ALTHBV: multivariable-adjusted temporal horn volume
AlkPhos: Alkaline phosphatase
AMD: Age-related macular degeneration
ANP6: N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide
AngCAD: angiographic coronary disease
AOI: age of smoking initiation
apoA-1: apolipoprotein A-1
aPTT: activated partial thromboplastin time
ASD: Ostium secundum atrial septal defect
AST: aspartate aminotransferase
At: antithrombin
ATBV: temporal brain volume
ATCBV: total cerebral brain volume
ATVB: multivariable-adjusted temporal brain volume


BABF: baseline brachial artery flow velocity
BARS: Barnes Akathisia Scale
BD: bipolar disorder
BD-RT: bone density estimated by T score at distal radius
BD-TT: bone density estimated by T score at midshaft tibia
BMD: bone mineral density
BMI: body mass index
BMR: basal metabolic rate
BMR RQ: respiratory quotient during basal metabolic rate measurement
BPV: brain parenchymal volume
BRCA1/2: breast cancer 1 gene and breast cancer 2 gene
BUA: Broadband ultrasound attenuation
BUN: blood urea nitrogen


C: cholesterol
C3: Propionylcarnitine
C4: Butyrylcarnitine
C9: Nonaylcarnitine
C10: Decanoylcarnitine
C10:2: Decadienylcarnitine
C12: Dodecanoylcarnitine
C14:1-OH: Hydroxytetradecenoylcarnitine
CA19-9: cancer antigen 19-9
CAC: coronary artery calcification
CAL:coronary artery lesions
CB-PWV: carotid brachial pulse wave velocity
CBT: Cortical thickness of the tibia
CC16: Clara cell secretory protein
CCA: common carotid artery
CCA IMT: common carotid artery intimal medial thickness
CCT: central corneal thickness
CD40L: Ligand, serum & plasma
cDAS28: Disease Activity Score
CE: cholesterol ester
CEA: carcinoembryonic antigen
Cer: ceramide
CEU: CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain) from Utah
CF-PWVLTA: carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, long-term average
CHS1: 1st principal component on transformed hue and saturation values
CK: creatinine kinase
CKD: chronic kidney disease
cHAQ: health assessment questionnaire score
cHL: Classical Hodgkin lymphoma
CIGSTAT: former/current smokers
cIMT: carotid intima media thickness
CL: cleft lip without cleft palate
CL/P: cleft lip with or without cleft palate
COWA: total number of correct words across three letters
CP: cleft palate
CPd: Chronic periodontitis
CPD: cigarettes per day
CPDBI: 10 or more cigarettes per day
CRP: C-reactive protein
CRP average 2,6,7: C-reactive protein (CRP) averaged from 3 examinations (over about 20 years)
CRP2: C-reactive protein, offspring exam 2
CRP average 2,6,7: C-reactive protein average exam 2,6,7
CRP6: C-reactive protein exam 6
CS: cardioembolic stroke
cSJC: Swollen joint count
cTJC: Tender joint count
CVD: cardiovascular disease


D: particle diameter
DBP: diastolic blood pressure
DBPLTA: diastolic blood pressure, long-term average
D.f.: Dermatophagoides farina
DG: Desialylated 2AB-labelled human plasma N-glycans groups
DGI+FUSION+WTCCC: combined results from the DGI, FUSION, WTCCC analyses
DHEA-S: dehydroisoandrosterone sulfate
DM: diabetes mellitus
D.p.: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus
DXA: dual energy X-ray absorptiometry


EA: European Ancestry
EBV: Epstein-Barr virus
EDS: excessive daytime sleepiness
EER: estimated energy requirement
eGFR:: glomerular filtration rate
eGFRcrea: estimated glomerular filtration rate based on serum creatinine
eGFRcys:: serum cystatin C
EM:: Elated mania
ET-1: Endothelin-1
ESCC: esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
ESRD: end-stage renal disease
ESS: Epworth Sleepiness Scale
Est-C: esterified cholesterol
EVNV: ever smokers, never smokers


F2: Factor 2 (visual memory and organization)
F3: Factor 3 (measure of attention and executive function - Trails A and B)
FC: free cholesterol
FEF: forced expiratory flow
FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 second
fev1slope: longitudinal slope of forced expiratory volume in one second
FG:  fibrinogen
FI: fasting insulin
FN: femoral neck
FNBMDm: femoral bone mineral density in males
FPG: fasting plasma glucose
fPS: free Protein S
Free T3: fasting serum free triiodothyronine
FS: female-only stroke
FSD: female sexual dysfunction
FSG: fasting serum glucose
FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone
Ft3: free thyroxine 3
Ft4: free thyroxine
FUC-A: Antennary fucosylated glycans
funcPS: functional Protein S
FVC: forced vital capacity
FVII: Coagulation factors VII
FWLTA: forward wave amplitude, long-term average


G3D: grade 3 diarrhea
GGT: glutamyltranspeptidase
Glc: Glucose
Gln: Glutamine
GLU: glucose
GluCer: glucosylceramide
GOT (AST): Glutamyl oxaloacetic transaminase, Aspartate aminotransferase
GPT (ALT): glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase
GP130: glycoprotein 130
GSE: general side effect burden


HbA1C: hemoglobin A1c
HbF: fetal hemoglobin
Hcy: homocysteine
HDL-C: Total cholesterol in HDL
Hgb: Hemoglobin
His: Histidine
HOMA-IR: homeostasis model insulin resistance
HIV: human immunodeficiency virus
HDL: high density lipoprotein
HOMA-B: beta-cell function
HRmax: maximum heart rate during treadmill fitness test
Ht: hematocrit
HU: Hounsfield units
HVA: homovanillic acid


ICAIMT: internal cartotid artery internal and common carotid intimal medial thickness
ICAM: Intercellular adhesion molecule
IED: intra-extradimensional set shifting
IGF1: insulin-like growth factor I precursor
IGFBP-1: fasting serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1
IGFBP-3: fasting serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3
IL6: Interleukin-6 precursor
IL8: Interleukin-8 precursor
IL10: Interleukin-10 precursor
IL12: interleukin-12 precursor
IL18: Interleukin-18 precursor
IL1B: Interleukin-1, beta
IL1RA: interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein precursor
IM: irritable mania
IMT: Carotid intimal medial thickness
INS: insulin
int: interaction
IR: insulin resistance
IS: all ischemic stroke
ISI_0-120: 0-120 min insulin sensitivity index


KD: Kawasaki disease


LA: linoleic acid
LAA: large artery atherosclerosis
LAD: left atrial diameter
LC: lung cancer
LDL: low density lipoprotein
LDL-C: Total cholesterol in LDL
LF/HF: ratio of low frequency to high frequency power
L-LDL-FC: The free cholesterol content of large LDL
L-HDL-L: Total lipids in large HDL
LS: lumbar spine
LTG: lamotrigine-induced hypersensitivity
LTL: leukocyte telomere length
LVD: large-vessel disease
LVDD: left ventricular diastolic diameter
LVFS: left ventricular fractional shortening
LVM: left ventricular mass
LVMI: left ventricular mass index
LVSD: left ventricular systolic dimension
LYM: Lymphoma subtypes


MAP: mean arterial pressure
MAPLTA: mean arterial pressure, long-term average
maxL*: maximum L* (reflectance)
MC: mother's criticism
MCH: mean corpuscular hemoglobin
MCHC: mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentra­tion
MCI: mild cognitive impairment
MCS: Mental Component Summary
MCV: mean corpuscular volume
MCP1: monocyte chemoattractant protein-1
meanFVC: mean forced vital capacity from 2 exams
meanratio: mean FEV1/FVC from 2 exams
METH: Methamphetamine
M-HDL-L: Total lipids in medium HDL
MHPG: 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenlglycol
MI: myocardial infarction
MIP-1b: macrophage inflammatory protein beta
M-LDL-C: Total cholesterol in medium LDL
M-LDL-PL: Phospholipids in medium LDL
MobCH: double-bond protons of mobile lipids
MMnb: mismatch negativity (300-710 ms)
MMSE: Mini-mental state examination
MSSS: Multiple Sclerosis Severity Scale
M-VLDL-PL: Phospholipids in medium VLDL
MW: mother's warmth


NA: not applicable
NAP: non-albumin protein
Nam: Boston Naming Test
NCI: neurocognitive impairment
NeckZ1: Neck section modulus
NeckZ1rf: neck section modulus in females
NeckW1rf: neck width in females
NeckZ1rm: neck section modulus in males
NEFA: fasting serum nonesterified fatty acids
NFT: neurofibrillary tangles
NHL: Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
NL: neck length
NPC: nasopharyngeal carcinoma
NPG: normal-pressure glaucoma
NR: not reported
NS: none significant
NSA: neck shaft angle
NSAm: neck-shaft angle in males
NSCL/P: nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate
NW: neck width
Nvrb: Non Verbal


OCPD: Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
OR: odds ratio


P: particle concentration
P3MRSBP: post exercise 3 minute recovery systolic blood pressure
PAD: peripheral artery disease
PAI-1: plasminogen activator inhibitor
PAL: paired associates learning
PC: Protein C
PC1: principal component axis 1, CANTAB measures
PC2: principal component analysis 2
PC3: principal component analysis 3
PC aa C36:3: Phosphatidylcholine diacyl C36:3
PC aa C36:4:: Phosphatidylcholine diacyl C34:4
PCS: Physical Component Summary
PCV: packed cell volume
P. gingi: Porphyromonas gingivalis
Phe: Phenylalanine
PHT: phenytoin-induced hypersensitivity
PKYRS: pack-years
PL: phospholipid
PLT: platelets
pltadp: platelet aggregation (ADP-induced)
pltcoll: platelet aggregation (collagen-induced)
PP: pulse pressure
ppfef: percent predicted FEF25-75­ for latest exam
ppfefrat: percent predicted FEF25-75­/FVC for latest exam
ppfvc: percent predicted FVC for latest exam
ppfev1: percent predicted FEV1 for latest exam
ppFEV1/FEC/FEE: percent predicted FEV1/FVC/FEF
ppratio: percent predicted FEV1/FVC for latest exam
PRM: pattern recognition memory
PROP: propylthiouracil solution
PS: protein S
PSC: primary sclerosing cholangitis
PT: prothrombin time
PUFA: polyunsaturated fatty acids


QC: quality control
QUICKI: fasting serum quantitative insulin sensitivity check index


RA: Rheumatoid arthritis
RANTES: fasting serum regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted
RBC: red blood cell
RBCC: red blood cell count
RDW: red cell distribution width
RQmax: maximum respiratory quotient during treadmill fitness test
RVP: rapid visual processing
RW: reflected wave amplitude
RWLTA: reflected wave amplitude, long-term average


S2EHR: Stage 2 exercise heart rate
S2ESBP: stage 2 exercise systolic blood pressure
serum TG: serum total triglyceride content
SAS: Simpson-Angus Scale
SBP: systolic blood pressure
SBPLTA: systolic blood pressure, long-term average
sCR: serum creatinine
SCZ and BD: Schizophrenia and Bipolar disorder
s.d.: standard deviation
SE: sleep efficiency
ShaftW1: Shaft width combined
ShaftW1f: shaft width in females
ShaftZ1rf: shaft section modulus in females
ShaftZ1R: shaft section modulus
SHBG: sex hormone binding globulin
sICAM-1: fasting serum soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1
sIL-6R: soluble interleukin
Sim: Similarities
Sleep RQ: respiratory quotient during sleep
SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus
SM-1: butyrylcarnitine / propionylcarnitine
SM-2: N-acetylornithine
SM-3: 1-arachidonoylglycero phosphoethanolamine / 1-linoleoylglycerophospho-ethanolamine
SM-4: bilirubin (E,E) / oleoylcarnitine
SM-5: hexanoylcarnitine / oleate (18:1n9)
SM-6: myristate (14:0) / myristoleate (14:1n5)
SM-7: 1-methylxanthine / 4-acetamidobutanoate
SM-9: 10-nonadecenoate (19:1n9) / 10-undecenoate (11:1n1)
SM-10: eicosenoate (20:1n9 or 11) / tetradecanedioate
SM-13: androsterone sulfate / epiandrosterone sulfate
SM-15: 1-eicosatrienoylglycero-phosphocholine / 1-linoleoylglycero phosphocholine
SM-16: docosahexaenoate (DHA; 22:6n3) / eicosapentaenoate (EPA; 20:5n3)
SM-17: 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)lactate / isovalerylcarnitine
SMKAGE: age of initiation (years)
SMKDU: duration (years)
SM: sphingomyelin
Spc: spectrum
SP-D: surfactant protein D
SPEED: processing speed
SRM: spatial recognition memory
SSP: spatial span
sTfR: Soluble Transferrin Receptor
Str: strict
SVD: small-vessel disease
SWM: spatial working memory


TAT: Total adipose tissue area
TC: total cholesterol
TEE: 24-h total energy expenditure
tFPG: 28 year time averaged fasting plasma glucose (FPG)
TG: triglycerides
TGF-b1: transforming growth factor
TG/HDLC: fasting serum triglycerides/high density lipoprotein cholesterol
TIDN: Type 1 diabetes diabetic nephropathy
Total PS: Total Protein S
Total T3: fasting serum triiodothyronine
Total T4: fasting serum thyroxine
TP: total protein
tPA: tissue plasminogen activator
TNFA: tumor necrosis factor alpha
TRBMD: Trochanter bone mineral density
TRBMDm: Trochanter bone mineral density males
TSH: thyroid stimulating hormone
Tyr: Tyrosine


UAE: urinary albumin excretion


Val: Valine
vBMD: volumetric bone mineral density
VitD250H: Vitamin D plasma 25(OH)-D
VitkPhylloq: Vitamin K plasma phylloquinone
VLDL: very-low-density lipoprotein
VLDL-D: Mean diameter for VLDL particles
VO2max: maximum oxygen consumption during treadmill fitness test
VOS: velocity of sound
Vrb: verbal
VRM: verbal recall
vWF: Willebrand factor


WBC: white blood cell
WC: waist circumference
WCadjBMI: WC adjustment for BMI
WF: weight fluctuation
WGHS: Women's Genome Health Study
WHR: waist hip ratio
WHRadjBMI: WHR adjustment for BMI
WRAT: Wide-Range Achievement Test


XL-HDL-CE: The cholesterol ester content of extra large HD
XL-HDL-TG: Triglycerides in very large HDL
XXL-VLDL-P: extremely large VLDL particles

YKL-40: (Chitinase 3-like 1) protein levels

Last updated: November 14, 2014