A genetic map is a type of chromosome map that shows the relative locations of genes and other important features. The map is based on the idea of linkage, which means that the closer two genes are to each other on the chromosome, the greater the probability that they will be inherited together. By following inheritance patterns, the relative locations of genes along the chromosome are established.
[Genetic map] is a map that shows the relative location of two genetic traits. And the way to do this is to use the offspring of an organism and track how many times two given genetic traits are inherited together; for instance, hair color and eye color. The higher the percentage of descendants that have both traits together, the closer on the chromosome the genes responsible for the traits will be.- Belen Hurle, Ph.D.