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Telomere-to-Telomere (T2T)

The first complete, gapless sequence of a human genome.

Researchers have completed a quest that started 32 years ago, having uncovered the final DNA sequences that make up a human genome. Learn more about this extraordinary achievement.


Nurk et al. The complete sequence of a human genomeScience 376. Doi: 10.1126/science.abj6987 (2022) 

Gershman et al. Epigenetic patterns in a complete human genomeScience 376. Doi: 10.1126/science.abj5089 (2022) 

Vollger et al. Segmental duplications and their variation in a complete human genomeScience 376. Doi: 10.1126/science.abj6965 (2022)

Hoyt et al. From telomere to telomere: The transcriptional and epigenetic state of human repeat elementsScience 376. Doi: 10.1126/science.abk3112 (2022)

Aganezov et al. A complete reference genome improves analysis of human genetic variationScience 376. Doi: 10.1126/science.abl3533 (2022)

Altemose et al. Complete genomic and epigenetic maps of human centromeresScience 376. Doi: 10.1126/science.abl4178 (2022)


Video: How to Sequence a Human Genome in 7 'Easy' Steps!

Credit: Ernesto Del Aguila III, NHGRI


Video: Fully sequencing the human genome

Credit: Harry Wedel, NHGRI



Download the Animation

Credit: Ernesto Del Aguila III, NHGRI.



For b-roll and other multimedia, please email NHGRIpressoffice@nih.gov.

Infographic: Completing the human genome sequence

The Human Genome Project ended in 2003, but genomic researchers had not yet determined every last base (or letter) of the human genome sequence. Instead, they had only completed about 92% of the sequence at that time. Why did they stop there?


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Historical Materials

Last updated: March 2, 2023