Gene therapy is an experimental form of treatment that uses gene transfer of genetic material into the cell of a patient to cure the disease. The idea is to modify the genetic information of the cell of the patient that is responsible for a disease, and then return that cell to normal conditions. Transfer of genetic material is done commonly by using viral vectors that use their own biological capacities to enter the cell and deposit the genetic material. Both inherited genetic diseases and acquired disorders can be treated with gene therapy. Examples of these disorders are primary immune deficiencies, where gene therapy has been able to fully correct the presentation of patients, and/or cancer, where the gene therapy is still at the experimental stage.Fabio Candotti, M.D.