A proband is an individual being studied or reported on. A proband is usually the first affected individual in a family who brings a genetic disorder to the attention of the medical community.
When genetic counselors take a family history to study how a condition or risk might be inherited, they often start with a proband. The proband is usually the person in the family who has first come to medical attention. This might be somebody who's affected with a genetic condition or somebody who's concerned that they're at risk.Barbara Bowles Biesecker, Ph.D.