NHGRI logo


updated: June 18, 2024


A proband is an individual who is affected by a genetic condition or who is concerned they are at risk. Usually, the proband is the first person in a family who brings the concern of a genetic disorder to the attention of healthcare professionals.


Proband. When genetics professionals like genetic counselors talk with families or individuals with genetic conditions or risk factors, one important goal may be tracing the condition back through generations of a person's family. Even though the proband might be the first person in the family to seek medical attention, evidence of the condition might be present in many previous generations of the family.

Julie Sapp
Julie C. Sapp, Sc.M., C.G.C.

Genetic Counselor

Precision Genomics Section