NHGRI logo

The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act, commonly known as GINA, is an important U.S. civil rights law that protects individuals from discrimination based on their genetic information. It was first introduced into the U.S. Congress in the 1990s at a time when genetic testing and genetics research was taking off at breakneck speed. GINA prevents health insurance companies and employers from requesting that people take genetic tests, prohibits health insurers from using someone's genetic information to refuse insurance or charge higher prices, and also prohibits employers from hiring, firing and making other employment decisions based on their employee's genetic information.

 

1995

Rep. Louise Slaughter introduces the first version of the bill in the U.S. House of Representatives. More +

 

1996

Sen. Olympia Snowe introduces a companion bill in the U.S. Senate. More +

 

1997-1998

Rep. Slaughter and Sen. Snowe reintroduce their bills in the 105th Congress. More +

 

1999

Rep. Slaughter and Sen. Snowe reintroduce their bills in the 106th Congress, adding protections against employment discrimination. More +

 

2000

Human Genome Project releases a rough draft of the sequence of the human genome. More +

 

2001

Rep. Slaughter and Sen. Snowe reintroduce their bills in the 107th Congress. More +

 

2002

Sen. Snowe introduces the "Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act" (GINA). More +

 

2003-2004

The Human Genome Project is complete, and the genetic nondiscrimination bill makes progress in the 108th Congress in the Senate. More +

 

2005-2006

Republican Rep. Judy Biggert from Illinois introduces the House version of GINA. More +

 

2007

Rep. Slaughter and Sen. Snowe reintroduce their bills in the 110th Congress. More +

 

2008

GINA Becomes a Law! More +

Last updated: May 5, 2020