A nucleosome is the basic repeating subunit of chromatin packaged inside the cell’s nucleus. In humans, about six feet of DNA must be packaged into a nucleus with a diameter less than a human hair, and nucleosomes play a key role in that process. A single nucleosome consists of about 150 base pairs of DNA sequence wrapped around a core of histone proteins. In forming a chromosome, the nucleosomes repeatedly fold in on themselves to tighten and condense the packaged DNA.
The nucleosomes are structural building blocks of the packing of DNA within a chromosome. The packing problem of how to fit a very, very long stretch of DNA, which is about a yard of DNA, inside a very small cell, which is about a hundredth of a millimeter in diameter, has fascinated scientists for a long time. And it turns out how the cell does this--now--remember that each cell in the body has this problem--is that it coils and super coils the DNA in a multitude of complex ways. The fundamental building block of that coiling are nucleosomes, which are blocks of essentially little spheres of histone proteins around which the DNA is wrapped, and they look literally like beads on a string, except the beads have the DNA wrapped around them instead of having the DNA go through them, as in the case of a bead on a string.