Newly identified genes and genetic pathways in primary melanoma - a type of skin cancer - could give researchers new targets for developing new personalized treatments for melanoma, and potentially other cancers. Learning how the genes are expressed - turned on or off - could be used in the future to predict how and when the cancer cells will spread to other parts of the body and how fast they will grow. Read the study in the February 6, 2017, online issue of Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research
Despite immense promise, adoption of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in biomedical research and medicine has been slowed by concerns that these cells are prone to increased numbers of genetic mutations. A new study by NHGRI scientists suggests that iPSCs do not develop more mutations than cells that are duplicated by subcloning. Read the study in the early edition of The Proeedings of the National Academy of Sciences for February 6, 2017.
Behçet's disease is a disease that destroys blood vessels through systemic inflammation, manifesting as painful oral and genital ulcers, as well as vision destroying inflammation of the eyes. Research suggests the disease develops due to pathogen exposure, along with a mix of genetic and environmental risk factors, but their interaction is poorly understood. The study appears in the February 6, 2017 online version of Nature Genetics.
NHGRI researchers and their colleagues are calling for health disparities research that focuses on the microbiome. Health disparities -- the negative health outcomes that impact certain groups of people - and the microbiome - the microorganisms that live in and on us -- are both influenced by people's environments and social interactions. As a result, the microbiome and health differences experienced by diverse people may be a two-way street, with the biological and environmental factors influencing each other, according to the perspective published in the journal Trends in Microbiology.