The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) has produced this series of fact sheets to explain complex concepts in genomics research to a non-scientific audience. Teachers, students and the general public alike will find the materials clearly written and easy to understand.

Biological Pathways Fact Sheet | NHGRI
Biological Pathways Fact Sheet

A biological pathway is a series of actions among molecules in a cell that leads to a certain product or a change in the cell.

A Brief Guide to Genomics | NHGRI
A Brief Guide to Genomics

Genomics is the study of all of a person's genes (the genome), including interactions of those genes with each other and with the person's environment.

Chromosome Abnormalities Fact Sheet | NHGRI
Chromosome Abnormalities Fact Sheet

Chromosome abnormalities can either be numerical or structural and usually occur when there is an error in cell division.

Chromosomes Fact Sheet | NHGRI
Chromosomes Fact Sheet

Chromosomes are thread-like structures located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells.

Cloning Fact Sheet | NHGRI
Cloning Fact Sheet

Cloning describes a number of different processes that can be used to produce genetically identical copies of a biological entity.

Comparative Genomics Fact Sheet | NHGRI
Comparative Genomics Fact Sheet

Comparative genomics is a field of biological research in which researchers compare the complete genome sequences of different species.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Fact Sheet | NHGRI
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Fact Sheet

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that contains the biological instructions that make each species unique.

DNA Microarray Technology Fact Sheet | NHGRI
DNA Microarray Technology Fact Sheet

A DNA microarray is a tool used to determine whether the DNA from a particular individual contains a mutation in genes.

DNA Sequencing Fact Sheet | NHGRI
DNA Sequencing Fact Sheet

DNA sequencing determines the order of the four chemical building blocks - called "bases" - that make up the DNA molecule.

Epigenomics Fact Sheet | NHGRI
Epigenomics Fact Sheet

Epigenomics is a field in which researchers chart the locations and understand the functions of all the chemical tags that mark the genome.

Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Fact Sheet | NHGRI
Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Fact Sheet

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) provides researchers with a way to visualize and map the genetic material in an individual's cell.

Genetic Mapping Fact Sheet | NHGRI
Genetic Mapping Fact Sheet

Genetic mapping offers evidence that a disease transmitted from parent to child is linked to one or more genes and clues about where a gene lies on a chromosome.

Genome-Wide Association Studies Fact Sheet | NHGRI
Genome-Wide Association Studies Fact Sheet

Genome-wide association studies involve scanning markers across the genomes of many people to find genetic variations associated with a particular disease​.

Knockout Mice Fact Sheet | NHGRI
Knockout Mice Fact Sheet

A knockout mouse is a laboratory mouse in which researchers have inactivated an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA.

Newborn Screening Fact Sheet | NHGRI
Newborn Screening Fact Sheet

Newborn screening tests use a dried blood sample collected during the first week after birth to measure the presence of disease biomarkers.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Fact Sheet | NHGRI
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Fact Sheet

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used to "amplify" small segments of DNA.

The Cost of Sequencing a Human Genome | NHGRI
The Cost of Sequencing a Human Genome

Estimated cost of sequencing the human genome over time since the Human Genome Project.

DNA Sequencing Costs: Data | NHGRI
DNA Sequencing Costs: Data

Data used to estimate the cost of sequencing the human genome over time since the Human Genome Project.

Transcriptome Fact Sheet | NHGRI
Transcriptome Fact Sheet

A transcriptome is a collection of all the gene readouts present in a cell.

X Chromosome Fact Sheet | NHGRI
X Chromosome Fact Sheet

The X chromosome determines your sex, gives some females super color vision and lends its magic to a certain breed of cat.

Y Chromosome Fact Sheet | NHGRI
Y Chromosome Fact Sheet

The Y chromosome of all living men is related through a single male ancestor who lived over 100,000 years ago.

Genetics vs. Genomics Fact Sheet | NHGRI
Genetics vs. Genomics Fact Sheet

Genetics refers to the study of genes and their roles in inheritance. Genomics refers to the study of all of a person's genes (the genome).

Last updated: November 9, 2015